Governor Dawson's Gallantry Utah Refused Admission As a State Passage of a Bill Against Polygamy Measures of the Legislature Arrival of Governor Harding Disputes Between Brigham and the Federal Officials Arrival of the California Volunteers a False Alarm the Morrisite Troubles Governors Doty and Durkee the Limits of Utah Curtailed Celebration of Lincoln's Second Inauguration the Brassfield and Robinson Murders Indian Outbreaks the Battle of Bear River Disturbances in Southern Utah Treaties With Indian Tribes the Uintah Valley Reservation Bibliographical.
The first appointments made by President Lincoln for the territory of Utah were John W. Dawson as governor,1 John F. Kinney as chief justice, R. P. Flenniken and J. R. Crosby associate judges, Frank Fuller secretary, and James Duane Doty superintendent of Indian affairs. A few weeks after his arrival, the governor was accused of making improper advances to one of the Mormon women, and on new-year's eve of 1861 was glad to make his escape from Zion, being waylaid at Mountain Dell on his return journey and soundly beaten by a party of saints.2
1After Cumming's departure, Secretary Wooton became acting governor, but resigned as soon as the southern secession was announced. Stenhouse's Rocky Mountain Saints, 445, 591.
2In Waite's The Mormon Prophet, 76; Beadle's Life in Utah, 201; Stenhouse's Rocky Mountain Saints, 592, it is stated that Dawson was entrapped into this affair; in Tucker's Mormonism, 239; Tullidge's Hist. S. L. City, 249; Deseret News, Jan. 1, 1862, that it was of his own seeking. In Id., Jan. 14th, is a letter from Dawson to the editor of the Deseret News, dated Bear River Station, Utah Terr., wherein the governor states that he was badly wounded in the head and kicked in the chest and loins. A copy of his first and only message to the legislature will be found in Utah Jour. Legisl., 1861-2, 12-26.
A month later the associate judges also left the territory, Thomas J. Drake and Charles B. Waite, appointed in their stead, with Stephen S. Harding as governor, arriving in July. Meanwhile the secretary, by virtue of his office, became the chief magistrate.3
Now came an opportunity for Brigham to put forth once more the claim which he had several times asserted: "I am and will be governor." At this period another effort was being made to obtain admission as a state, and on the 17th of March, 1862, the legislature being then in session, a proclamation was issued, in which, styling himself governor-elect, Brigham convened the general assembly and ordered the election of senators to congress.4 Soon afterward he telegraphed to Washington that no assistance was needed in subduing the Indians, who, as will presently appear, were somewhat troublesome at this date; for "the militia were ready and able, as they had ever been, to take care of them, and were able and willing to protect the mail line if called upon to do so." Fuller meekly indorsed this statement, and was authorized by the war department to call out ninety men for three months' service between forts Bridger and Laramie. General Wells was ordered to take command of the party, and in three days it was ready to march.
The choice for senators fell on William H. Hooper and George Q. Cannon. The former had been elected delegate in 1859, when he obtained a partial settlement of the outstanding claims of the territory, including a portion of the expenses for the Indian war of 1850, and for the sessions of the assembly under
3For the seeond time, as he arrived before Gov. Dawson, and on the resignation of Wooton filled the vacancy. In Utah Jour. Legisl., 1861-2, is a joint resolution approving his first administration, which was, however, in fact a nullity. A day or two before Cumming left the territory Stenhouse asked him, 'How will Wooton get along?' 'Get along?' he replied; 'well enough, if he will do nothing.' Rocky Mountain Saints, 445, note. Some years later he was elected a representative conditional upon the admission of Utah as a state. Harrison's Crit. Notes on Utah, MS., 29.
4A copy of it will be found in the Deseret News, March 19, 1862.
the provisional government. He was at once despatched to Washington, with a memorial and constitution of the inchoate state of Deseret, and Cannon, who was then in England, was instructed to join him without delay. The two elders labored diligently in their cause, but failed of success.5 It was claimed, however, on the part of the Mormons, that they won the respect of congress by accepting their defeat and adhering to the union at a time when it was believed throughout Europe that the war would result in favor of the south, and when the sympathies of England and France were strongly in favor of the southern states. Moreover, the attitude of the saints throughout this struggle, and especially the tone of their church organ, the Deseret News, were not adverse to the union cause. On the Sunday preceding the surrender at Appomattox their prophet foretold in the tabernacle that there would be yet four years of civil war.
Though the saints may have had some few friends in congress at this time, it is certain that they had numerous and bitter enemies, who were constantly working against their interests. In April 1862 a bill was introduced by Justin S. Morrill of Vermont "to punish and prevent the practice of polygamy in the territories of the United States, and for other purposes, and to disapprove and annul certain acts of the territorial legislature of Utah." The objectionable acts referred to included all those which tended to establish or support polygamy, and especially an
5It would appear that the Mormons hoped to succeed on this occasion. In a letter to Cannon, dated Dec. 16, 1860, Hooper writes: 'I think three-quarters of the republicans of the house would vote for our admission.' For copies of the memorial and constitution, see House Misc. Doc., 78, 37th Cong. 2d Sess.; Deseret News, Jan. 29, 1862. They were referred to the committee on territories. In the Millennial Star, xxiv. 241-5, 257-61, is a synopsis of the proceedings relating to the constitution and state government. See also Deseret News, Jan. 22, 1862; Sac. Union, Feb. 14, 17, 1802. Meetings in favor of this measure were held at Provo, Santaquin (a small settlement in Utah co.), Spanish Fork, Grantsville, and Tooele, for an account of which, see Id., Jan. 15, 1862. Prominent among those who opposed the admission of Utah was Judge Cradlebaugh, afterward representative from Nevada, whose speech in the house, on Feb. 7, 1803, has already been mentioned.
ordinance incorporating the church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, passed in 1851, and reinacted in 1855, whereby all members of the church were included in the body corporate, trustees being appointed to control the church property, and the church empowered to make laws with regard to marriage.6 It was further provided by the same act of congress that no corporation or association for religious purposes should hold real estate in any of the territories of a greater value than $50,000.7
In other respects the proceedings of the Utah legislature at this period and for many years afterward contained few objectionable features, most of them relating to municipal affairs, as did those of previous sessions. In 1854 and 1855 acts were passed providing for the construction of canals between Utah Lake, Big Cottonwood Creek, and Great Salt Lake.8
6And regulations as to solemnities, sacraments, ceremonies, consecrations, endowments, tithings, fellowship, and all matters relating to 'the religious duties of man to his maker.' Utah Acts Legisl. (ed. 1855), 104.
7A copy of the act will be found in Cong. Globe, 1861-2, app. 385. In 1855 a bill was introduced for the suppression of polygamy and in the debates which ensued Morrill took an active part. It was referred to a committee of the whole. See Cong. Globe, 1855-6, pp. 895, 1491, 1501. In 1859 a bill passed the representatives. Id., 1859-60, pp. 1559. For other measures and discussions in congress between 1853 and 1862, relating to roads, surveys, mails, appropriations, boundaries, public buildings, Indian troubles and other matters, see Cong. Globe, 1853-4, pp. 286, 1437, 1440, 1472, 1621, 1701, 2236-9, passim; Id., 1854-5, pp. 5, 341, 540, passim; 1855-6, pp. 19, 39, 1451-2, 1473, 1491, 1495, 1497; 1856-7, pp. 284, 392, 408, 418, 608; 1857-8, pp. 553, 564, 572-3, passim; 1858-9, pp. 119, 335, 341, 658, 1066; 1859-60, pp. 187-98, 474, 486, 500; 1866-1, pp. 326, 336, 840, 1132, 1159, 1195, 1197, 1288, 1302; Sen. Jour., 33d Cong., 1st Sess., 1003; Id., 33d Cong., 2d Sess., 574-5; 34th Cong., 2d Sess., 943; 34th Cong., 3d Sess., 63; 35th Cong., 2d Sess., 450, 590, 660; 36th Cong., 1st Sess., 1041, 1045-6; 37th Cong., 2d Sess., 1161; H. Jour., 33d Cong., 1st Sess., 1563; Id., 33d Cong., 2d Sess., 723; 34th Cong., 1st Sess., 1837; 34th Cong., 3d Sess., 376; 35th Cong., 1st Sess., 1325, 1366; 35th Cong., 2d Sess., 323, 745, 759, 761; 36th Cong., 1st Sess., 1410, 1455-6; 36th Cong., 2d Sess., 580; 37th Cong., 2d Sess., 1271, 1318-19. In H. Misc. Doc., 100, 35th Cong., 1st Sess., is a memorial stating the grievances of the Mormons, and asking that they be allowed a voice in the selection of their rulers. In the senate, resolutions were submitted that committees should inquire into the propriety of the Mormons electing their own officials and no longer submitting their enactments to congress Sen. Misc. Doc., 12, 36th Cong., 1st Sess. The committees reported adversely.
8The first was to commence above the rapids of the Jordan, where a dam was to be built, and thence following the base of the mountains, on the east of G. S. Lake Valley, to S. L. City, with depth sufficient for boats drawing two and a half feet of water. Utah Acts Legisl. (ed. 1866), 175-6. The (cont.)
In 1862 an ordinance was approved, regulating the fisheries of the Jordan River. In 1865 laws were enacted amending the charter of Salt Lake City,9 and prescribing the mode of assessing and collecting territorial and county taxes, which must not exceed one per cent of the assessed value of property.10 In 1866 statutes were framed defining the boundaries of counties, locating the county seats,11 and providing for the establishment and maintenance of common schools.12 Between 1854 and 1866 numerous acts were also passed incorporating agricultural, manufacturing, irrigation, and road companies,13 and
(8cont.) Cottonwood canal was to divert half the waters of the creek and conduct them to S. L. City. Id. (ed. 1855), 277-8.
9Among other matters, the city council was empowered to build and control hospitals, and to direct the location of medical colleges, railroad tracks, depot-grounds, gas-works, canals, and telegraph-poles within the city limits; and to collect taxes on real estate for grading, paving, repairing, and lighting streets, and for drainage purposes. Id. (ed. 1866), 119.
10One half per cent for territorial tax, and for county tax a rate to be prescribed by the county court, but not exceeding a half per cent. Id., 84.
11Id., 207-9. The following is a complete list of the county seats in 1866, some of which have already been mentioned. Grafton was the county seat of Kane co., St George of Washington co., Parowan of Iron co., Salt Lake City, Beaver, and Tooele of the counties of the same name, Circleville of Piute co., Fillmore of Millard co., Richfield of Sevier co., Nephi of Juab co., Manti of Sanpete co., Provo of Utah co., Heber City of Wasatch co., Farmington of Davis co., Ogden of Weber co., Brigham City of Box Elder co., Wanship of Summit co., Littleton of Morgan co., Logan City of Cache co., St Charles of Richland co., and Fort Bridger of Green River co. A portion of Richland, later Rich, co., including the site of St Charles, Paris, Bloomington, and other settlements, was afterward included in Idaho. The county was first settled in 1863 by C. C. Rich. Sloan's Utah Gazetteer, 1884, 29, 141.
12Utah Acts Legisl. (ed. 1866), 219-23. For school purposes, a tax not exceeding one fourth per cent was to be levied by the trustees of each district; but this might be increased to as much as three per cent by vote of two thirds of the tax-payers.
13By act of 1856, the Deseret Agricultural and Manufacturing Society was incorporated, 'with a view of promoting the arts of domestic industry, and to encourage the production of articles from the native elements in this territory.' The society was required to hold an annual exhibition of the agricultural products, live-stock, and articles of domestic manufacture. By act of 1862, amended in 1865, the Jordan Irrigation Company was incorporated, with power to construct dams across the Jordan, and divert its waters at any point not more than twelve miles above Jordan bridge. By acts of 1865 and 1866, the Ogden Cañon, Uintah, and Logan Cañon road companies were incorporated; the first with the right of building a toll-road from the mouth of the cañon to Ogden Valley, with privilege for thirty years; the second with permission to construct a similar road from Utah Lake, throurh Uintah Valley, to the eastward boundary of the territory, connecting with the road to Denver, Colorado; the third with power to build a toll-road from Logan City to the summit of the mountains (cont.)
granting to individuals certain water and grazing rights, and the privilege of building toll-roads and bridges.14
In July 1862, Governor Harding, with judges Waite and Drake, arrived in Salt Lake City, and for the first time in his career Brigham declared himself satisfied with the United States officials. Matters worked smoothly until the meeting of the legislature in December, when the saints took offence at the governor's message, wherein he reproved them sharply for disloyalty and the practice of polygamy, and called their attention to the recent act of congress. "I am aware," he said, "that there is a prevailing opinion here that said act is unconstitutional, and therefore it is recommended by those in high authority that no regard whatever should be paid to the same I take this occasion to warn the people of this territory against such dangerous and disloyal council."15
(13cont.) dividing Cache and Rich counties, their fights lasting 14 years. Ben. Holladay, Wm H. Hooper, and W. L. Halsey were the body corporate of the Uintah Road Co., with privilege for 15 years. By act of 1865 the Overland Mail Company was authorized to make a road across the Dugway Mountain, 105 miles west of S. L. City, and to erect a toll-gate at or near the eastern Base of the mountain, with privilege for ten years.
14By act of 1854, repealing acts of the previous year, Brigham Young was empowered to establish and control ferries and bridges at the Weber and Bear rivers for an indefinite term. Utah Acts Legisl. (ed. 1855), 267-8. By acts of 1855 Parley Park and an adjacent valley to the south were granted for 20 years as herd-grounds to Heber C. Kimball, Jedediah M. Grant, Sam. Snyder, and their associates, and certain lands in Utah co. to Miles and Franklin Weaver for the same purpose. By acts of the same year, Kimball and his partners were authorized to make a toll-road from Big Cañon, S. L. co., to Kamas prairie, Utah co., passing through Parley Park, and Orson Hyde and others to build a toll-road and bridges in Carson co., which were to become the property of the territory after five years. Id., 284-6. In 1857 John L. Butler and Aaron Johnson were granted the control of one fourth of the waters of the Spanish Fork River for irrigation purposes, during the pleasure of the legislative assembly. Id. (ed. 1866), 179. In 1866 Alvin Nichols and Wm S. Godbe were allowed to establish toll-bridges across the Bear and Malade rivers, the privilege being for eight years. Other proceedings of the legislature between 1854 and 1866 will be found in Utah Acts Legisl., and Utah Jour. Legisl., passim, and in the files of the Deseret News. The names of members are also given in Utah Jour. Legisl., for each year.
15A full copy of the message will be found in Utah Jour. Legisl., 1862-3, app.; and of parts of it in Waite's The Mormon Prophet, 79-82. It was at first suppressed by the Utah legislature. Sen. Misc. Doc., 37, 37th Cong. 3d Sess.; but a senate committee ordered it printed. Sen. Com. Rept., 87, 37th Cong. 3d Sess. Other messages of the several governors will be found in the (cont.)
Thus was aroused afresh the antagonism of the Mormons, and the trouble was further increased by the action of Judge Waite, who was appointed to the second, or southern district,16 Drake being assigned to the first, or central district, and the chief justice to the third, or northern circuit. Early in 1863 Waite drew up a bill amending the organic act, providing that juries be selected by the United States marshal, authorizing the governor to appoint militia officers, and restricting the powers of the probate courts to their proper functions, though with a limited criminal jurisdiction. The bill was approved by the governor and by Judge Drake, and, being forwarded to congress, was referred to committee. On hearing of this measure, Brigham called a meeting at the tabernacle for the 3d of March, when many inflammatory speeches were made, and resolutions passed, condemning the governor's message and the action of the judges. A committee was appointed to wait on the officials and request their resignation, and a petition drawn up requesting the president to remove them.17
To the committee, among whom was John Taylor, Drake replied: "Go back to Brigham Young, your
(15cont.) Utah Jour. Legisl., for each year. See also Deseret News, Dec. 14, 1854, Dec. 19, 1855, Dec. 23, 1857, Dec. 22, 1858, Dec. 14, 1859, Apr. 16, 1862, Jan. 21, Dec. 16, 1863, Jan. 25, Dee. 11, 1865; S. F. Alta, March 10, 1854; Sac. Union, Feb. 12, 1855, Feb. 12, 1856.
16In Waite's The Mormon Prophet, 85-6, it is stated that the legislature ordered court to be opened at St George on the third Monday in May, but as they did not wish the session to take place until autumn, passed a second bill, appointing the third Monday in October for the beginning of the term. Waite preferred to open court in May, and having occasion to examine the bill, found that the word 'May' had been erased and 'October' substituted. This had been done by a clerk in the house, and presumably by the order of members. The governor, who had inadvertently returned the bill, ordered the record corrected, and sent a message to the legislature, calling their attention to the forgery. Issue was taken with him on the matter, one member producing a paper which, he averred, was the original draught, and where October was the month appointed. In the Deseret News, March 25, 1863, Waite is sharply censured for holding court in the third district, where he had no jurisdiction.
17For copies of some of the speeches, the resolutions, and petition, see Waite's The Mormon Prophet, 88-95; Tullidge's Hist S. L. City, 307-11 The petition was signed by several thousand persons. A counter-petition, signed by the officers of Connor's command, will be found in Waite's The Mormon Prophet, 95-7.
masterthat embodiment of sin and shame and disgustand tell him that I neither fear him, nor love him, nor hate himthat I utterly despise him. Tell him, whose tools and tricksters you are, that I did not come here by his permission, and that I will not go away at his desire or by his directions. I have given no cause of offence to any one. I have not entered a Mormon's house since I came here; your wives and daughters have not been disturbed by me, and I have not even looked upon your concubines and lewd women." "We have our opinions," remarked one of the committee as they rose to depart. "Yes," replied Drake, "thieves and murderers can have opinions." The governor made answer to the committee in language hardly less injudicious, though somewhat uneasy as to his own personal safety, but Waite responded in more seemly and temperate phrase.18 The Mormons resented the conduct of the judges as an outrage. Men gathered in groups at the street corners and discussed the matter with angry gestures; one of the judges was threatened with personal violence, and it is probable that an émeute was only prevented by the fact that a party of California volunteers was now encamped near Salt Lake City.
Ostensibly for protection against Indians, though in fact because the mail route and telegraph line were not considered secure in the hands of the saints, and perhaps also for the purpose of holding the territory under military surveillance, Colonel Connor was ordered to Utah in May 1862, his command consisting of the third California infantry and a part of the second California cavalry, afterward joined by a few companies from Nevada, and mustering in all about seven hundred strong. The men had volunteered in the expectation of being ordered to the seat of war, and great was their disgust when it became known that Zion was their destination.19 In October the troops reached Camp
18The answers of the governor and judges will be found in Id., 97-9.
19A correspondent of the S. F. Bulletin writes under date Sept. 24, 1862: (cont.)
Floyd, or, as it was now termed, Fort Crittenden.20 Here it was supposed that the volunteers would encamp, and their commanding officer was informed that no nearer approach to the capital would be permitted. The colonel paid no heed to this warning. "He would cross the Jordan," he declared, "though all hell should yawn beneath it." On the next day his men, after passing through Salt Lake City with fixed bayonets, loaded rifles, and shotted cannon, encamped on the brow of a hill21 east of the city, their artillery being pointed at Brigham's residence. To this spot was given the name of Camp Douglas, the site being afterward declared a military reservation.22
The presence of the volunteers, though they were not sufficient in number to overawe the populace, and could have been readily annihilated by the Nauvoo legion, was a source of constant irritation. The Mormons were not backward in their denunciations, while mischief-makers were constantly spreading reports that served to increase the mutual distrust. An elder who was passing Waite's residence, while the judge was in
(19cont.) 'The third infantry California volunteers wants to go homenot for the purpose of seeing the old folks, but for the purpose of tramping upon the sacred soil of Virginia, and of swelling the ranks of the brave battlers for the brave old flag.' About $25,000 was subscribed by the men on condition that they were sent east, one private named Goldthaite, in company G., contributing $5,000. On the same date Colonel Connor wrote to General Halleck, stating that the men had enlisted for the purpose of fighting traitors, that the infantry was of no service in the territory, as cavalry alone could act effectually against Indians, and there were enough men of that arm to protect the mail route. 'Brigham Young,' writes the colonel, 'offers to protect the entire line with 100 men. Why we were sent here is a mystery. It could not be to keep Mormondon in order, for Brigham can thoroughly annihilate us with the 5,000 to 25,000 frontiersmen always at his command.'
20By order of Col Cook, his purpose being to disconnect it with the name of Floyd, who was a secessionist. Stenhouse mentions a story current among the volunteers to the effect that Brigham, on hearing of their approach, had ordered the flag-staff at Fort Crittenden to be cut down and left on the public road. This was not the case. The flag was hoisted on the brow of a hill east of Brigham's residence. Stenhouse's Rocky Mountain Saints, 422, 602.
21Termed the bench.
22Stenhouse's Rocky Mountain Saints, 603; Harrison's Crit. Notes on Utah, MS., 20; Rae's Westward by Rail, 140; Gazetteer of Utah, 182. The site at first included one square mile, but was afterward enlarged to 2,560 acres. The men passed the winter of 1862-3 in dug-outsin this instance holes dug in the earth and covered with a frame-work of logspermanent quarters being built the following summer, without expense to the government, except for the nails and shingles.
conversation with Colonel Connor, overheard the latter remark: "These three men must be surprised." "Colonel, you know your duty," answered the judge. It was now believed that the first presidency was in danger;23 a flag was hoisted over Brigham's residence as a signal, and within an hour two thousand men were under arms, the prophet's dwelling being strongly guarded, scaffolding built against the surrounding walls, to enable the militia to fire down on the volunteers, and cannon planted on the avenues of approach.
Night and day for several weeks armed men kept watch over the prophet, for it was now rumored that Connor intended to seize him at night and carry him off to Camp Douglas before the saints could rally to his aid.24 The citizens were instructed that, if the attempt were made, alarm guns would be fired from the hillside east of Brigham's residence. On the night of the 29th of March they were roused from sleep by the booming of cannon, and, as quickly as they could don their garments and seize their weapons, all ran forth from their homes, intent on exterminating the foe. As they rushed through the streets, the strains of martial music were heard, to which, as was supposed, the troops were marching on Zion. The alarm was unfounded, the music and salute being in honor of the colonel's promotion to the rank of brigadier-general, of which news had just arrived at Camp Douglas.
Although it is probable that Connor never intended
23Letter of David O. Calder in Millennial Star, xxv. 301-2; Harrison's Crit. Notes on Utah, MS., 20. Colonel Connor denied that he had any designs against the first presidency. In Stenhouse's Rocky Monntain Saints, 607, it is related that one of the parties to whom Waite referred was a Mormon, who had recently married the three widows of a wealthy merchant in S. L. City. It was thought that this would furnish a good test of the law against polygamy. No arrest was made, however, as it was feared that difficulties might arise if Waite should try a case that lay within Kinney's jurisdiction.
24The Mormons feared that Brigham might be taken to Washington for trial. For several days hundreds of men kept watch in and around his residence. Elders were also instructed to visit the various wards and warn the saints of the danger to person and property, from the lawless conduct of the troops. Parties patrolled the streets at night to protect the citizens; the movements of the soldiery were carefully watched, and all trade with the camp was for a time forbidden. Harrison's Crit. Notes on Utah, MS.
to risk his slender force in an encounter with the territorial militia, there was a possibility of a collision, and it is probable that hostilities were prevented by the prevailing of better counsels on both sides. Brigham was always strongly opposed to the shedding of blood, though he wished these men out of the city limits, on which the reservation slightly intrenched.25 The grand jury had already voted the camp a nuisance,26 and on the mayor devolved the duty of seeing it abated. But before taking action that official began to count the cost. To rid the city of the volunteers might be no difficult task, but if their blood was shed, others would come in tenfold numbers to take their place.27 By a little judicious delay the mayor gave time for the prophet's cooler judgment to assert itself, and thus averted an issue which might have resulted in the final dispersion of his people.
The condition of affairs was now similar to that which had obtained during the presence of the army of Utah, Judge Kinney shielding the church dignitaries from molestation by his colleagues, as Governor Cumming had done from the measures of judges Sinclair and Cradlebaugh. When it was believed that the arrest of Brigham was contemplated, on the ground that he had recently married another wife, the chief justice, as a safeguard, and at his own request, ordered him into custody for violating the act for the suppression of polygamy. The writ was served by the marshal, without the aid of a posse, and the prisoner, attended by a few intimate friends, promptly appeared at the state-house, where an investigation was held,
25Though its centre was two and a half miles from the city hall, it lapped over the municipal boundary. Id., 609, note.
26It was reported that the waters of Red Butte cañon had been purposely fouled, being passed through the stables of the volunteers. The troops were stationed near the head of the stream, but it was denied that they had been guilty of any such act, though doubtless the Mormons believed it. Later in the year there may have been cause for complaint, as the supply for irrigation was curtailed during the dry season.
27When Connor heard of Brigham's order, he remarked to Stenhouse: 'I know, sir, that Brigham Young could use up this handful of men; but there are sixty thousand men in California who would avenge our blood.' Ibid.
and the accused admitted to bail, awaiting the action of the grand jury. Although the prophet's recent marriage was well known throughout the city, and had long furnished food for gossip, the judges afterward refused to find a bill against him, on the ground that there was no sufficient evidence.28
During its session the grand jury indicted, for armed resistance to the laws, certain apostates known as Morrisites. In November 1860 an ignorant and simple-minded Welshman, Joseph Morris by name, made his way to the capital on foot, from an obscure settlement in Weber county. He had two letters, the contents of which were, as he claimed, inspired, their purport being to warn Brigham of his sin.29 His despatches were unheeded, or answered in befitting phrase,30 whereupon this new seer and revelator turned his face homeward. Reaching Kington Fort, on the Weber River, some thirty miles north of the city,31 he found favor with the bishop and certain of his neighbors, who embraced the new doctrine, believing that Morris was appointed by the Lord to deliver Israel from bondage, and that the Lord's coming was nigh at hand. Other proselytes gathered from far and near, and all held their effects in common, for Christ was about to descend and would provide for his elect.32
28In his Crit. Notes on Utah, MS., 18-20, Harrison states that the anti-polygamy act was considered by the Mormons as directed mainly against Brigham Young and the heads of the church. 'I will take the wind out of their sails,' the former remarked, and at once caused himseft to be arrested and taken before Judge Kinney. The witnesses were all his friends, among them being some of his own clerks, and he was simply bound over, to appear when called upon. It was not until nine years later that Brigham's name appeared again in any case of the kind, and the act of 1862 had then become void by virtue of the statute of limitations. See also Deseret News, March 11, 1863; S. F. Alta, March 11, 14, 1863; Sac. Union, March 12, 1863.
29Waite says that Morris had received many previous revelations, which he had communicated to Brigham and the apostles, that his life had been threatened, and that he now appealed to the prophet for protection. The Mormon Prophet, 122.
30Ibid.; Stenhouse's Rocky Mountain Saints, 594. Stenhouse also says that Brigham answered them with a brief and filthy response.
31Near the point where the Union Pacific railroad issues from Weber Cañon.
32Waite says that when the Morrisites increased m number, Brigham ordered John Taylor and Wilford Woodruff to investigate the matter. Summoning (cont.)
But the Lord tarried; and meanwhile provisions ran short and the enthusiasm of the converts began to wane, some desiring to withdraw, demanding a restitution of their property, and refusing to contribute anything to the common stock, even for their own support. It was decided to let the dissenters go in peace; but some of them selected from the common herd the choicest cattle, and laying in wait for their brethren's teams, pounced on them while on their way to the mill laden with wheat. Three of the offenders were seized and imprisoned at Kington Fort, their friends in vain asking the interference of the sheriff and of Brigham. An appeal was then made to Judge Kinney, who at once issued warrants for the arrest of the Morrisite leaders, and writs of habeas corpus for the men held in custody. No heed was paid to these documents, for Morris had already appointed the day for the second advent, assuring his followers that there would no longer be seedtime or harvest, and that meanwhile they had grain and cattle sufficient for their needs. Colonel Burton, sheriff of Salt Lake county, was then ordered to enforce the writs, and on the 13th of June, 1862, appeared on the heights above their camp at the Weber settlement with a posse of three hundred or four hundred men and five pieces of artillery.
A summons was now sent to the leaders,33 demanding their surrender within thirty minutes, and warning them of the consequences if they should refuse. Morris withdrew to his dwelling, to consult the Lord, and a few minutes later returned with a written revelation, promising that not one of his people should be harmed,
(32cont.) a meeting at South Weber, they asked whether there were any present who believed in the new prophet. Seventeen persons arose and declared their faith, stating that they would adhere to it though it should cost them their lives. They were excommunicated, but nevertheless the number of converts increased rapidly, and in a few months mustered about 500 persons. The Mormon Prophet, 122-4.
33Joseph Morris, John Banks, Richard Cook, John Parsons, and Peter Klemgard. A copy of the summons is given in Stenhouse's Rocky Mountain Saints, 596-7.
but that their enemies should be smitten before them. The faithful were then assembled, and after prayer and reading of the revelation were told to choose which part they would take. A moment later the report of artillery was heard, and two women were struck dead by a cannon-ball, the lower jaw of a young girl being shattered by the same shot. The firing was continued almost without intermission, the assailants opening with musketry as they approached the camp.
At first the Morrisites, both men and women, took refuge in their cellars, or wherever else they could find cover, all being unarmed and the attack unexpected; but presently, recovering from their panic, the men seized their weapons and organized for defence. The camp consisted mainly of tents and covered wagons, with a few huts built of willows, woven together and plastered. Behind this frail protection the besieged maintained for three days an unequal fight, the cannon and long-range rifles of their assailants raking the enclosure,34 while their own weapons consisted only of shot-guns and a few Mexican fire-locks. At intervals Morris was besought to intercede with the Lord, but his only answer was: "If it be his will, we shall be delivered, and our enemies destroyed; but let us do our duty." On the evening of the third day a white flag was raised, whereupon he exclaimed: "Your faith has gone and the Lord has forsaken us. I can now do nothing more."
After the surrender, the Morrisites were ordered to stack their arms, the men being separated from the women, and most of the former placed under arrest. The prophet, his lieutenant, and two of the women were shot, as the survivors relate, by the sheriff,35 ten
34The cannon were loaded with musket-balls, which tore down the huts and pierced the sandy hillocks, wounding some of the women and children, who had taken refuge behind them. Beadle's Life in Utah, 417.
35In a sworn statement made before Judge Waite, Apr. 18, 1863, Alex. Dow deposed: 'In the spring of 1861 I joined the Morrisites, and was present when Joseph Morris was killed.' 'Robert T. Burton and Joseph L. Stoddard rode in among the Morrisites. Burton was much excited. He said: "Where is the man? I don't know him." Stoddard replied, "That's him," (cont.)
of their party and two of the posse having been killed during the fight.36 The camp was then plundered, and the dead conveyed to Salt Lake City, where the bodies of Morris and his lieutenant were exposed at the city hall, the robe, crown, and rod of the former being laid in mockery by his side, and his fate regarded by the saints as the just punishment of one who "had set himself up to teach heresy in Zion, and oppose the Lord's anointed." The prisoners were brought before Judge Kinney, placed under bonds, and at the next session of court, in March 1863, seven were convicted of murder in the second degree and sentenced to various terms of imprisonment, while sixty-six others were fined $100, being committed to jail until the titles were paid, and two were acquitted.37 Against
(35cont.) pointing to Morris. Burton rode his horse upon Morris, and commanded him to give himself up in the name of the Lord. Morris replied: "No never, never!" Morris said he wanted to speak to the people. Burton said: "Be damned quick about it." Morris said: "Brethren I've taught you true principleshe had scarcely got the words out of his mouth before Burton fired his revolver. The ball passed in his neck or shoulder. Burton exclaimed: "There's your prophet!" He fired again, saying: "What do you think of your prophet now?" Burton then turned suddenly and shot Banks (the prophet's lieutenant), who was standing five or six paces distant. Banks fell. Mrs Bowman, wife of James Bowman, came running up, crying: "Oh! you blood-thristy wretch." Burton said: "No one shall tell me that and live," and shot her dead. A Danish woman then came running up to Morris crying, and Burton shot her dead also.' Stenhouse's Rocky Mountain Saints, 598-9; Waite's Mormon Prophet, 127; Beadle's Life in Utah, 418-19. Beadle throws doubt on portions of Dow's testimony, and says that according to the statements of members of the posse, Morris was killed because, after the surrender, he ordered his followers to take up their arms and renew the fight. Stenhouse relates that Banks was wounded at the time of Morris' death, but not fatally. In the evening he was well enough to sit up and enjoy his pipe, but died suddenly, though whether by poison, pistol, or knife is doubtful.
36Waite's The Mormon Prophet, 126. Stenhouse says, six of the Morrisites killed and three wounded. Rocky Mountain Saints, 599; Tullidge, six casualties only. Life of Brigham Young, 339; Beadle, ten killed and a very large number wounded. Life in Utah, 420.
37A nolle prosequi was entered against one of the accused. Those condemned to the penitentiary were loaded with ball and chain, and made to work on the roads. Harding, in Hickman's Destroying Angel, 215. A detailed, but condensed account of the Morrisite massacre, and perhaps one of the best, will be found in Waite's The Mormon Prophet, 122-7. For other versions, see A Voice from the West, 5-12; Stenhouse's Rocky Mountain Saints, 593-600; Beadle's Life in Utah, 413-21; Tullidge's Life of Brigham Young, 336-9; Hickman's Destroying Angel, 211-14; Virginia City (Mont.) Madisonian, Nov. 24, 1877; :Deseret News, June 18, 1862, March 12, 1879; S. L. City Tribune, Aug. 11, 18, 1877. There are few material discrepancies in the above accounts, except in the one given by the Deseret News, though Beadle's work (cont.)
the sheriff and other members of the posse no proceedings were taken at this date, though it was alleged by the Morrisites that his course was severe, and that the arrests might have been made without the loss of a single life. In 1879, however, Burton, who in consideration of his services had meanwhile been promoted to offices of trust, holding among others the post of collector of internal revenue for Utah,38 was indicted for the murder of one of the women.39 He was acquitted after a trial lasting several weeks, for he was a good and responsible man in every respect, and there was no evidence that he was guilty of the crime alleged.
To Governor Harding and judges Waite and Drake the law appeared to have been strained against the Morrisites, even though they may have been guilty of resisting a legal process, and petitions for their pardon being signed by the federal officials, the officers
(37cont.) contains some details that do not appear elsewhere. He states, for instance, that when the prisoners were first brought before Judge Kinney, only five of them would sign bonds, and of the rest only a few could speak English, the latter protesting against the entire proceedings, and declaring that they would lie in jail till the devil's thousand years were out' before they would admit that they were legally dealt with. The account given in A Voice from the West, San Francisco, 1879, is written by one of the sect, and is purely from a Morrisite standpoint. In the Deseret News, March 12, 1879, it is stated that Morris had been excommunicated for adultery, that his followers boasted that they would soon occupy the houses and farms of the Mormons, and that Burton took command of the posse with great reluctance, after the Morrisites had frequently defied the officers of the law. 'The Morrisites,' says the church organ, 'commenced to fire upon the posse with their long-range rifles, and having torn up the floors of their log cabins and wickeups, dug np the earth and threw it against the walls. They lay in these cellars firing through port-holes at the posse. There were very close upon 200 men in these fortifications.' After the arms were stacked, Burton, Stoddard, and some fifteen others entered the camp, and Morris, being allowed at his own request to speak to the people, cried out: 'All who are for me and my God in life or in death follow me.' A rush was then made for the arms, whereupon the posse opened fire, the sheriff firing two shots at Morris, Stoddard also firing two or three shots, and two women being killed, though by whom is not stated.
38Beadle states that when he visited Utah in 1868, Burton was also assessor of S. L. co., a general in the Nauvoo legion, a prominent elder in the church, and one of the chiefs of the secret police. Life in Utah, 398.
39He was arrested in Aug. 1876, and his bail fixed at $20,000. Deseret News, March 12, 1879; in July 1877, with bail at $10,000. S. L. City Tribune, July 28, 1877. A former indictment had been found in the Sept. term of 1870, but the constitution of the grand jury was declared illegal by the U. S. sup. court.
at Camp Douglas, and other gentiles,40 the chief magistrate released the prisoners and remitted the fines.41 For thus turning loose on the community a number of persons whom the Mormon rulers classed as dangerous criminals, only three days after conviction, and before any investigation had been made, Harding was severely censured by the grand jury. "Therefore we present his 'Excellency' Stephen S. Harding, governor of Utah, as we would an unsafe bridge over a dangerous streamjeopardizing the lives of all who pass over itor as we would a pestiferous cesspool in our district breeding disease and death." Meanwhile the bonds of such offenders as had failed to appear for trial were declared forfeited by the chief justice, and execution issued against their property. The homestead of one of them named Abraham Taylor was sold for a trifling sum,42 and his family turned into the street. By the advice of Judge Waite, who investigated the matter, and found that no judgment had been recorded, Taylor applied to the chief justice for an injunction. The application was refused, on the ground that "if there was no judgment, he could render one, as the court had not permanently adjourned, but only to meet on his own motion."
Of the further career of the Morrisites it remains only to be said that a few who were possessed of means at once left the territory, while most of the remainder found refuge and employment at Camp Douglas. A few weeks later Connor established a military post at Soda Springs, on Bear River, immediately
40And by some of the Mormons. Beadle's Life in Utah, 421; Hickman's Destroying Angel, 163. Harding, in Id., 216, says that no Mormon signatures except that of Hickman appeared on the petitions, but that several of the saints called at his quarters after dark to intercede for the Morrisites.
41Beadle states that Bishop Woolley called on Harding to remonstrate against the pardon, saying, as he took his leave, that if it were granted, 'the people might proceed to violence.' Life in Utah, 421. On pp. 423-5, he relates an improbable story of a visit paid to the governor by Banks' widow, to warn him of a plot against his life.
42To Joseph A. Johnson, clerk of Kinney's court, for $200. Beadle's Life in Utah, 425. In 1868 Taylor recovered his property, with back rents for five years.
beyond the northern limit of Utah,43 offering to furnish conveyance for all who wished to form a settlement at that point. More than two hundred of the Morrisites availed themselves of this offer, removing with their effects under the escort of a company of volunteers.
This feud between the saints and the federal officials was brought to an end in June 1863, Harding being superseded as governor44 by James Duane Doty, with Amos Reed as secretary, and John Titus of Pennsylvania being appointed chief justice in place of Kinney, who at the next general election was chosen delegate to congress.45 Thus the president endeavored to restore peace by making concessions on both sides. In the spring of 1864 Judge Waite resigned in disgust, after holding a term of court, at which there was not a single case on the docket.46 His successor was a Missourian, named Solomon McCurdy. Judge Drake still remained at his post,47 though merely going through the form of holding court, all attempts to administer justice proving futile among a community that had never willingly submitted, and had not yet been compelled to submit, to gentile domination.
The administration of Governor Doty lasted only for two years, and during this period little worthy of note is recorded in the annals of Utah, this being perhaps the best evidence that some degree of harmony
43At a point about 175 miles north of S. L. City and now in Idaho Ter. It was named Camp Connor.
44He left S. L. City on June 11th, being appointed consul at Valparaiso. Deseret News, June 17, 1863. Harding was a native of Milan, Ind., and when appointed governor of Utah was about 50 years of age. He was an able lawyer, and a man of energy and personal courage; but during his administration he labored rather to win the approval of the American people than to deal out strict justice. Waite's The Mormon Prophet, 107.
45Tullidge's Hist. S. L. City, 325; Stenhouse's Rocky Mountain Saints, 609, where it is stated that Kinney's removal was caused by his subservience to the will of Brigham. In the Deseret News, Apr. 27, 1864, are reports of his first speeches in congress.
46He afterward followed his profession in Idaho City. Waite's The Mormon Prophet, 105, 111.
47Before his appointment to Utah, Drake had lived for many years at Pontiac, Mich. At this date he was a man of thin, wiry frame, aged about sixty, of nervous temperament, vigorous mind, and blameless life.
at length prevailed between the federal and territorial authorities. The new magistrate was a conservative ruler, liberal and tolerant in his policy, an able and experienced statesman, and on terms of friendship with many of the most eminent men of his day. His youth had been passed among the frontier settlements of Wisconsin and Michigan, and in early manhood he had held prominent positions in state and national councils.48 During his residence in the territory he had made many friends and scarcely a single enemy, his intercourse with the citizens being always marked by the cordiality and freedom from constraint characteristic of western life and manners. At his decease, which occurred, after a painful illness, on the 13th of June, 1865, a city draped in mourning gave token of the respect in which he was held by the Mormon community.49
Governor Dory was succeeded by Charles Durkee, a native of Wisconsin, who held office until late in 1869.50 At the time of his appointment he was aged and infirm, and was selected perhaps for that reason, his orders being to pursue a negative and conciliatory policy. "I was sent out to do nothing," he once remarked to an intimate friend,51 and his instructions were faithfully executed.52
During Durkee's administration the territory of
48Doty, a native of Salem, N Y, was admitted to the supreme court of Michigan in 1818, in which year he began to practice law at Detroit, being then only 19 years of age. In 1819 he was appointed secretary to the Mich. legislature; in 1834-5 he was a member of the Mich. legislative council, and introduced a measure providing for a state government, which was adopted by the council; in 1837 he was elected delegate to congress, and in 1849, representative in congress from Wisconsin. Waite's The Mormon Prophet, 108-9; Beadle's Life in Utah, 214-15; Deseret News, June 21, 1865.
49On the day of his funeral business was suspended in S. L. City. Deseret News, June 21, 1865.
50In the first half of 1869 Secretary E. P. Higgins acted as governor, during Durkee's absence. His message to the legislature, while in that capacity, was regarded as one of the most able ever presented to that body.
51J. H. Beadle author of Life in Utah.
52Gov. Durkee was born at Royalton, Vt, in 1802. He was one of the earliest settlers and most prominent men in Wisconsin, and a member of its first legislature. In 1855 he was elected U.S. senator, and was a stanch adherent of the anti-slavery party. He died at Omaha on the 14th of Jan., 1870. Deseret News, Jan. 26, 1870; Beadle's Life in Utah, 215.
Wyoming was organized,53 and included the portion of Utah north of the 41st parallel and east of the 111th meridian, a surface of 8,000 square miles. Idaho, admitted in 1863, also contained, on its southern border, a narrow belt claimed by the Mormons, though merely by right of possession.54 In 1861, on the organization of Colorado, the eastern boundary of Utah was placed at the 109th meridian.55 By these partitions the area of the latter was reduced to about 85,000 square miles, its limits being identical with those which now exist.56
The antagonism between General Connor and the Mormon authorities57 was for the moment relieved,
53For organic act, see Laws of Wyoming, 1869, 18-24.
54In the organic act, the southern boundary of Idaho was fixed at the 42d parallel. Idaho Laws, 1863-4, p. 28. In 1850, when Utah was defined, it was bounded on the north by Oregon, of which the southern boundary was the same parallel.
55Colorado Laws, 1861, p. 23.
56In 1865 memorials of the Utah legislature were presented to congress for the annexation of territory in Colorado and Arizona. Utah Acts, 1865, pp. 91-2; H. Misc. Doc., 53, 38th Cong. 2d Sess. For further proceedings in congress relating to Utah, see i., 37th Cong. 3d Sess., 737; Id., 38th Cong. 2d Sess., 562; 39th Cong. 1st Sees., 1339, 1383; Sen. Jour., 37th Cong. 3d Sees., 618; 38th Cong. 1st Sess., 1009, 1029, 1159; 38th Cong. 2d Sess., 503; Gong. Globe, 1862-3, 26, 60, 166, 210, 228-9, 1121; Id., 1864-5, 117, 124, 157, 596, 942, 967, 996, 1028, 1172; 1865-6, 1494, 3509, 3522, 4190.
57Hickman states that in the autumn of 1863 Brigham offered him a large bribe to assassinate Connor. Destroying Angel, 167. The ill feeling had been considerably intensified by the appearance in The Union Vedette, a newspaper first published at Camp Douglas, Nov. 20, 1863, of a number of circulars signed by Connor and relating to the mining interests of the territory. The general states his belief that Utah abounds in rich veins of gold, silver, copper, and other minerals, invites miners and prospectors to explore and develop them, and threatens the Mormon leaders with martial law in case of interference. In a letter to Col Drum, asst adjt-general at San Francisco, he writes: 'My policy in this territory has been to invite hither a large gentile and loyal population, sufficient by peaceful means and through the ballot-box to overwhelm the Mormons by mere force of numbers, and thus wrest from the churchdisloyal and traitorous to the corethe absolute and tyrannical control of temporal and civil affairs.' The Daily Telegraph, the first number of which appeared July 4, 1864, with T. B. H. Stenhouse as editor and proprietor, waged fierce war with the Vedette, which was issued at Camp Douglas in Jan. 1864, as a daily paper. Early in 1865 Gen. Connor stopped its publication. Stenhouse's Rocky Mountain Saints, 612; Sloan's Utah Gazetteer, 1884, p. 29. It was again published, however, in June of this year at S. L. City, and continued till Nov. 27, 1867. The Telegraph was afterward moved to Ogden, where the last number appeared in July 1869. Richards' Bibliog. of Utah, MS., 15. In Aug. 1859 a newspaper named The Mountaineer was published in S. L. City by Seth M. Blair, James Ferguson, and Hosea Stout, being intended (cont.)
when, in 1865, all joined in celebrating the second inauguration of Abraham Lincoln and the success of the union arms. Though his party was strongly opposed to Mormonism, Lincoln had little to say on the so-called Mormon question, and that little was expressed in three words: Let them alone. To be left alone was all that the people asked and all that they had struggled for, since Utah was first admitted as a territory. The occasion was therefore one of rejoicing, honest and heart-felt, and the pageant more imposing than anything that had yet been witnessed in the city of the saints.58 In the centre of Main Street a platform was erected, and here, on the morning of the 4th of March, the federal officers, civil and military, exchanged greetings with the church dignitaries. Past them filed a procession of tradesmen and working men, a mile in length, the sidewalks, the windows, and house-tops being crowded with an eager and boisterous throng. The buildings were draped with flags, the carriages and sleighs decorated with streamers, the men and women with rosettes, while the bands of the 3d infantry and the Nauvoo legion furnished music, and Mormon banners, with their manifold devices, appeared side by side with the stars and stripes.
Later the concourse assembled in front of the stand, the provost guard59 facing the platform, the militia companies forming in the rear, and the volunteers drawn up on their right, four deep and with arms at rest. Addresses were delivered, the bands playing and the multitude cheering lustily during the intervals. The troops were then escorted to their camp by the cavalry of the legion, and General Connor and his staff
(57cont.) for secular news and for general circulation, though friendly in its tone toward the saints. It lasted only one year. Ibid.
58A meeting of officers and prominent citizens was held at Camp Douglas on the 28th of Feb., and a committee of arrangements appointed.
59Organized by Connor with a view, as Tullidge says, to establishing a military dictatorship in Utah. In a strongly anti-Mormon report to J. Bidwell, rep. from Cal., dated Feb. 1867, Gen. Hazen admits that Connor was unduly harsh toward the saints, remarking that his zeal as a catholic may account for his rigor. House Misc. Doc., 75, 39th Cong. 2d Sess., 4.
invited to a banquet at the city hall, the invitation being accepted, although the general, who had now received orders to take charge of the department of the Platte, was unable to attend in person.60 In the evening the party again met at the theatre, and the festivities concluded at a late hour, with a display of fire-works, the federal officials being well pleased, and perhaps a little surprised at the exuberant loyalty of the Mormons.
A few weeks after this gala-day citizens and soldiers again united in fraternal gathering to mourn the loss of their president.61 When news of his assassination was first received, the volunteers could with difficulty be controlled from venting their fury on the inhabitants, who, as they imagined, were exulting over this deed of infamy. Soon, however, they were forced to acknowledge themselves in error, for Lincoln had ever been friendly toward the Mormons, and by none was he more respected. On the 19th of April, the day set apart for the funeral solemnities at Washington, business was suspended in Salt Lake City; the flags on the public buildings were hung at half-mast and covered with crape; many of the stores and residences were dressed in mourning, and long before the appointed hour more than three thousand persons, among them being many gentiles, were assembled at the tabernacle. The platform was occupied by the civil and military functionaries and a number of prominent
60Stenhouse mentions that before his departure a ball was given at the social hall, which Brigham and his councillors declined to attend, the officers' wives of Camp Douglas also refusing to meet the Mormon women. Rocky Mountain Saints, 612. Gen. P. Edward Connor, an Irishman by birth, came to the U.S. early in life, and enlisted in the regular army, serving for five years as a private soildier on the frontier. During the Mexican war he raised a company of volunteers in Texas, and led them as their captain at Buena Vista, where he was wounded, and received honorable mention in the official despatches. At the close of the war he settled in California, where in ten years he accumulated a fortune. At the beginning of the civil war he was offered the colonelcy of the third Cal. volunteers. Waite's The Mormon Prophet, 112-13.
61On the 18th of April a meeting of federal, civil, and military officers was held at S. L. City, when arrangements were made for the funeral exercises. It is worthy of note that Col Burton was appointed one of the committee of arrangements. See Tullidge's Hist. S. L. City, 335.
citizens, the stand and organ being draped in black. The exercises commenced with an anthem by the choir, followed by a prayer from Franklin D. Richards. Then came an eloquent address from Amasa Lyman, and an impressive eulogy on the life, character, and services of Lincoln by Norman McLeod, the chaplain at Camp Douglas, the funeral rites concluding with a benediction by Wilford Woodruff.
Soon after the departure of Connor, orders were received to disband the volunteers; but the alarm caused among gentile citizens by further Mormon troubles caused a portion of them to be retained until they could be replaced by regular troops. Of the many crimes laid to the charge of the saints at this period, and by some ascribed to the agency of the church, the murders of Newton Brassfield and King Robinson were the most notorious.62 In the spring of 1866 Brassfield, formerly a citizen of California and more recently of Nevada, married the wife of one of the elders, then employed on a foreign mission. Application was made and granted for a writ of habeas corpus to obtain possession of the children, the case being still pending when the assassination occurred. On the 2d of April he was shot dead by some unknown person while about to enter his hotel.63 A reward of $4,500 was offered by the
62Gen. Hazen remarks in his report: 'There is no doubt of their murder from Mormon church influences, although I do not believe by direct command.' He recommends that in future the commanding officer at Camp Douglas be ordered to send one of the Mormon leaders to the state prison at Jefferson, Mo., for each man that is assassinated, and that he be retained there until the culprit is surrendered. House Misc. Doc., 75, 39th Cong. 2d Sess., 4. Beadle states that, when most of the volunteers had been withdrawn, all gentiles who had taken up land west of the Jordan were whipped, tarred and feathered, or ducked in the Jordan, and their improvements destroyed, and that Weston of the Union Vedette was seized, carried to the temple block by night, and cruelly beaten. Life in Utah, 203-4. See also The Union Vedette, in Virginia and Helena (Mont.) Post, Oct 9, 1866.
63Deseret News, April 5, 12, 1866. In the former number it is stated that two other cases of shooting had occurred within less than three weeks, one of the parties, named Mayfield, being dangerously wounded by a soldier who mistook him for a gambler with whom he had had some difficultyThe account of Brassfield's murder and its cause as related in the Deseret News agrees (cont.)
gentile community, but without success, for the arrest of the murderer, who was probably a relative of the elder's, as the sentiment of the Mormon community required that the nearest of kin should avenge the wrongs of an absent husband.64
King Robinson, a native of Maine, and in 1864 a resident of California, was appointed in that year assistant surgeon at Camp Douglas.65 When the volunteers were mustered out of service he practised his profession in Salt Lake City, and in the spring of 1866 married the daughter of a physician, Dr Kay, who in his life-time had been a pillar of the church, but whose wife and children were apostates. The doctor was an intimate friend of Norman McLeod, and at the time of his assassination a superintendent of the gentile Sunday-school.66 While at Camp Douglas, he ascertained that certain ground in the neighborhood of Warm Springs was unoccupied, and supposing it to be a portion of the public domain, took possession of it, and erected a building thereon. The city council claimed that the land belonged to the corporation, and ordered the marshal to destroy the improvements and eject the claimant. The doctor brought the matter before the court, but the chief
(63cont.) essentially with the one given in Stenhouse's Rocky Mountain Saints, 615, except that according to Stenhouse's version no attempt was made to arrest the murderer, while in the Deseret News it is stated that he was pursued and several shots fired at him. Beadle, Life in Utah, 204-5, says that the woman had repudiated her former marriage, that Brassfield, who had taken her trunk and clothing from her former residence, was arrested for larceny, and a day or two later, while in the street in custody of the marshal, was shot in the back by a hidden assassin, no special effort being made to arrest him.
64Stenhouse relates that General Sherman, on hearing of the assassination, telegraphed to Brigham that he hoped to hear of no more murders of gentiles in Utah, and reminded him that there were plenty of soldiers, recently mustered out of service, who would be glad to pay him a visit. Brigham replied that Brassfield had seduced a man's wife, and that life in S. L. City was as safe as elsewhere if people attended to their own business. Stenhouse's Rocky Mountain Saints, 616. See also The Dalles Daily Mountaineer, May 17, 1866.
65He was afterward sent to Camp Connor. The Union Vedette, Oct. 25, 1866, in Beadle's Life in Utah, 206.
66McLeod was at this time preaching at Independence Hall in opposition to Mormonism, and the doctor no doubt shared his sentiments. Both were heartily disliked by the Mormons. Stenhouse's Rocky Mountain Saints, 616-17.
justice decided against him.67 Soon afterward other property belonging to Robinson was destroyed at midnight by a gang of twenty or thirty men, some of them in disguise, Alexander Burr, of the police force, with several others as accomplices, being accused, though not identified. By the advice of his counsel, Robinson gave notice that he intended to hold the city responsible for damages. Two days later he was aroused near midnight to attend a patient, and when a short distance from his dwelling was struck on the head with a sharp instrument, and then shot through the brain. The murder was committed at a corner of Main Street in bright moonlight, the doctor's cries were heard by his neighbors, and seven persons were seen running away from the spot, but no arrests were made,68 the verdict of the coroner's jury being that the deceased had died by the hands of parties unknown.69 By the gentiles the doctor's assassination was attributed to his contest with the city authorities, though in fact the murder may have been neither ordered nor premeditated. If it were so, it would seem improbable that seven persons should have been intrusted with the secret, and that such time and place should have been selected.
Other murders and outrages were ascribed to the Mormons about this date, some of gentiles and some of their own apostate countrymen.70 So great was
67During the trial Robinson's counsel raised the point that the city, on account of the non-performance of certain acts, had no legal existence. Deseret News, Nov. 14, 1866.
68Parties were indicted for the murder by the grand jury, in 1871, but there was no evidence against them except that, they had been seen in the neighborhood. Stenhouse's Rocky Mountain Saints, 617-18.
69Deseret News, Nov. 14, 1866; Stenhouse's Rocky Mountain Saints, 616-20, 735-41, where are copies of the speeches of counsel. In commenting on the case, the Deseret News remarks that the investigation was conducted without the least effort to discover the assassins, unless it could be shown that they were Mormons. For other accounts, see Beadle's Life in Utah, 206-9; Richardson's Beyond the Mississippi, 363; Rusling's Across America, 183-9; Virginia and Helena Post, Oct. 30, 1866; Boisé City Statesman, Nov. 3, 1866; Austin, Reese River Reveillé, Oct. 29, 1866; Virginia City Post, Nov. 3, 1866. A large reward was subscribed for the arrest of the murderers, at the head of the list being the name of Brigham Young for $500.
70Among the latter, Beadle mentions the cases of three apostates named Potter, Wilson, and Walkerthe first a brother of those murdered at Springville (cont.)
the alarm among gentile merchants, that, with a few exceptions, they signed an agreement to leave the territory, on condition that their property should be purchased by the authorities at a low valuation. The answer was that they had not been asked to come, and were not now asked to depart; they could stay as long as they pleased, and would not be molested if they did not molest others. No further deeds of violence occurred, the excitement gradually died away, and with the approaching completion of the overland railroad a better feeling prevailed. Contracts had been awarded without distinction to Mormon and gentile; travel had increased, and with it traffic and the circulation of money, and for a brief space all felt a common interest in the country's prosperity.
Not least among the benefits caused by the building of the railroad was the gradual cessation of Indian hostilities, which had continued, with little intermission, from the date of the Mountain Meadows massacre. The natives had no alternative but to steal or starve; the white man was in possession of their pastures; game was rapidly disappearing; in the depth of winter they were starving and almost unclad, sleeping in the snow and sleet, with no covering but a cape of rabbit's fur and moccasons lined with cedar bark; even in summer they were often compelled to subsist on
(70cont.) in 1857who were arrested at Coalville, Weber co., for stealing a cow, and placed in charge of a party of policemen, one of them a Danite named Hinckley. Walker escaped to Camp Douglas, but Wilson and Potter were killed by the officers. The murderers were arrested, but escaped from the marshal. Soon afterward a colored man, known as Negro Tom, called on the federal officials to state that he could give important evidence concerning certain murders. A few days later he was found with his throat cut and his body horribly mangled, about two miles east of the city. Life in Utah, 211-12. See also Stenhouse's Rocky Mountain Saints, 621. The latter relates that Judge Titus caused the arrests, in consequence of which one of the apostles, to mark his contempt for the judge, had a chemise made, about ten feet in length, and ordered it to be handed to the judge as a present. Titus regarded the matter as a threat, as well as an insult, considering that the night garment was intended as a shroud. In 1866 a man named Beanfield, from Austin, Nev., had some difficulty with the Mormons and was shot. Bowles, Our New West, 266. See also S. F. Call, Nov. 1, 16, 1866, April 14, 1867; S. F. Times, Aug. 15, Oct. 25, 1867; Sac. Union, Oct. 31, 1866.
reptiles, insects, roots, and grass seeds. Farm reservations had been opened for their benefit,71 and in 1859 it was stated by the superintendent of Indian affairs that an appropriation of $150,000 would enable him to provide for all the destitute among the 18,000 natives then inhabiting the territory. No appropriation was made at this date, though, as will presently appear, liberal provision was made a few years later for certain of the Utah tribes.
Between 1857 and the close of 1862 outbreaks were of frequent occurrence,72 and until the arrival of the
71Among them the Spanish Fork reservation, including nearly 13,000 acres, was opened in 1855 in Utah Valley. Here about 2,500 bushels of wheat were raised in 1859. There were others on Sanpete Creek, in the valley of that name, on Corn Creek, in Fillmore Valley, and at Deep Creek and Ruby valleys. On each there were about 25 acres in wheat, and a small quantity of vegetables were raised. J. Forney, in Ind. Aff. Rept, 1859, pp. 367-9. In these reports for the years 1856-63, and in Sen. Doc., 36th Cong. 1st Sess., xi. no. 42, are many statements and suggestions as to the character of the Indians, their condition, treatment, reservation work, and intercourse with the white population. As they were little heeded, it is unnecessary to mention them in detail. The names of the various superintendents of Indian affairs and Indian agents will be found in the American Almanac.
72For troubles in southern Utah in 1857-8, see Little's Jacob Hamblin, 47 et seq. In Oct. 1858, Hamblin with eleven others left the Santa Clara settlement to visit the Moquis on the eastern side of the Colorado, thus paving the way for Mormon colonization in that direction. On Feb. 25, 1858, a descent was made on one of the northern settlements by 250 Shoshones. Two settlers were killed, five wounded, and a large number of cattle and horses driven off. On the 1st and 9th of March the herds of the settlers in Rush Valley were raided and a quantity of stock stolen. On the 7th, 100 horses and mules were taken from the farm of John C. Naile at the north end of Utah Lake. House Ex. Doc., 35th Cong. 2d Sess., ii. pt ii. pp. 74-5, 80-2. On Sept. 10th, Utah Indians violated the persons of a Danish woman and her daughter, near the Spanish Fork reservation. Id., 152; Ind. Aff. Rept, 1859, p. 362. In the summer of 1859 an emigrant party, en route for California, was surprised in the neighborhood of the Goose Creek mountains, and at least five men and two women killed, the massacre being caused by the slaughter of two Indians who entered the camp for trading purposes. Ind. Aff. Rept, 1859-60, pt ii. 210-11. On Aug. 14th, this body of Indians was attacked by Lieut Gay with a company of dragoons, and about 20 of them killed. In his message to the Utah legislature, dated Dec. 12, 1860, Gov. Cumming states that though a suitable force had been appointed for the protection of the northern emigrant route, many persons had been murdered presumably by roving bands of Shoshones and Bannacks. Utah Jour. Legisl., 1859-60, p. 8. In the summer of 1860, Mayor Ormsby, with a party of Carson Valley militia, was decoyed into a cañon and perished with all his command, the cause of the outbreak being the slaying by emigrants of a chief, named Winnemucca. Burton's City of the Saints, 582. See also Moore's Pion. Exper., MS., 15-19. For further Indian depredations up to 1863, measures taken to prevent and punish them, and remarks thereon, too voluminous to be mentioned in detail, see Ind. Aff. Rept, 1859-60, pt ii., 231-44, 1861, 21, 1862, 210-14, 1863, 419-20; Sen. Doc., 36th Cong. 2d Sess., ii. no. 1, pp. 69-73; House Ex. Doc., 37 Cong. 3d Sess., iv. no. 3, pp. 78-80, 82-5, v. no. 30; (cont.)
volunteers, no effectual curb was placed on the hostile tribes. On the 29th of January, 1863, the battle of Bear River was fought, twelve miles north of Franklin, between some three hundred of the Shoshones and Banhacks, under their chiefs Bear Hunter, Pocatello, and Sanpitch, and about two hundred then of Connor's command, its result effectually putting a stop to hostilities in Northern Utah. For fifteen years the northern tribes had infested the overland mail route, slaughtering and plundering emigrants and settlers, until their outrages had become unbearable. Reaching Franklin by forced marches, during an intensely cold winter, the snow being so deep that their howitzers did not arrive in time to be of service, the troops approached the enemy's camp at daylight on the 29th, and found them posted in a ravine through which Battle Creek enters Bear River. Their position was well chosen, the ravine being six to twelve feet deep, about forty in width, with steep banks, under which willows had been densely interwoven, and whence they could deliver their fire without exposing themselves. Attacking simultaneously in flank and front, Connor routed them after an engagement lasting four hours, and, their retreat being cut off by cavalry, the band was almost annihilated.73 Among the slain was Bear Hunter,74 the other chieftains making their escape. Had the savages committed
(72cont.) Hayes' Scraps, Los Angeles, iv. 96; Deseret News, March 17, Apr. 14, July 7, Nov. 3, 17, 1858, Feb. 16, Aug. 3, 24, 31, Sept. 21, Nov. 16, 1859, May 30, Aug. 1, Oct. 3, 1860, Feb. 13, 1861, Apr. 16, June 11, Aug. 13, Sept. 17, 24, Oct. 8, Nov. 26, Dec. 10, 31, 1862; S. F. Alta, May 11, Aug. 16, 17, Sept. 6, Oct. 20, 28, 29, 1858, Jan. 18, March 29, 30, July 6, Sept. 8, 12, 16, 21, 22, 28, Oct. 6, 28, 1859; S. F. Bulletin, May 8, Aug. 18, Oct. 28, 29, Nov. 26, 1858, Aug. 24, 30, Oct. 31, Nov. 19, 1859, Oct. 4, 8, 1862; Sac. Union, Aug. 10, 12, Sept. 28, Oct. 2, 5, 12, 19, 31, Nov. 2, 11, 14, Dec. 7, 1857, March 3, July 21, 29, Aug. 17, Sept. 4, Oct. 20, Nov. 16, 25, 31, 1858, Feb. 18, 23, March 16, Apr. 15, May 10, Aug. 11, 31, Sept. 17, 19, 22, 30, Oct. 5, 7, 27, Dec. 2, 19, 1859, Apr. 6, May 4, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 21, 23, 24, 28, 30, 31, June 1, 4, 5, 8, 9, 12, 14, 16, 20, 26, July 6, 7, 9, 12, 13, 14, 21, 31, Aug. 1, 21, 23, Oct. 2, 1860, Apr. 4, 24, 29, May 8, 9, 31, June 7, 11, Aug. 15, 18, Sept. 3, 18, 22, Oct. 2, Dec. 26, 1862.
73Connor states that he found 224 bodies on the field, and how many more were killed he was unable to say. A copy of his official despatch will be found in Tullidge's Hist. S. L. City, 283-6.
74And two inferior chiefs, named Sagwitch and Lehi, Id., 286.
this deed, it would pass into history as a butchery or a massacre.
Of Connor's command, which consisted of 300 volunteers, but of whom not more than two thirds were engaged,75 fourteen were killed and forty-nine wounded. A number of rifles and nearly 200 horses were captured, and more than seventy lodges, together with a large quantity of provisions, destroyed. This defeat completely broke the power and spirit of the Indians, and the result was immediately felt throughout Northern Utah, especially in Cache county, where flocks and herds were now comparatively safe, and where settlements could be made on new and favorable sites hitherto considered insecure.76
During the spring of this year an outbreak occurred among the Utahs in the neighborhood of the Spanish Fork reservation. A party of volunteers, under Colonel G. S. Evans, defeated them in two engagements.77 In April 1865 an Indian war broke out in Sanpete county, spreading to adjacent districts, and lasting without intermission until the close of 1867, under the leadership of a chieftain named Blackhawk. Although the militia of the southern counties were constantly in the field, and reënforcements were sent from Salt Lake City under General Wells, the California volunteers being then disbanded, more than fifty of the Mormon settlers were massacred, an immense quantity of live-stock captured,78 and so wide
75Seventy-six were disabled by frozen feet. Letter of General Halleck in Id., 287.
76In addition to the official despatches of Col Connor and Gen. Halleck, Tullidge gives in his Hist. S. L. City, 289-90, two other accounts of the battle at Bear River, one copied from a historical note in the Logan Branch records, and the other from Col Martineau's sketch of the military history of Cache co. Both differ from the official reports as to the number killed, the former placing it at 200, and a great many wounded, the latter stating that the dead, as counted by an eye-witness from Franklin, amounted to 368, besides the wounded who afterward died, and that about 90 of the slain were women and children. For other versions, see Hayes' Scraps, Indians, v. 214-17.
77The volunteers numbered 140. Among the killed was Lieut F. A. Teale. Sloan's Utah Gazetteer, 1884, 29.
78Accounts of the various massacres and depredations Will be found in Wells' Narr., MS.; Smith's Rise, Progress, and Travels, 29-30; Utah Sketches, MS., 13-14, 43, 136-48, 153-7; see also Robinson's Sinners and Saints, 162-5; (cont.)
spread was the alarm that many of the southern settlements were for the time abandoned,79 the loss to the community exceeding $1,100,000.80 Of this sum no portion was voted by congress, the memorials of the Utah legislature asking for reimbursements being ignored, although the militia had served for more than two years without pay, and the governor had declared that their claims were just and their services necessary.81
(78cont.) Codman's Round Trip, 219-20, 243-5. The leading incidents are briefly as follow: On the 9th of April, 1865, Blackhawk and his band visited Manti, where they boasted of having stolen some cattle at a neighboring settlement, and wanted to hold a 'big talk.' On the next day some of the Manti citizens, who rode forth to ascertain the truth of the matter, were fired upon and one of them killed, the Indians retiring up Salt Creek Cañon in Sevier co., where they killed two herdsmen. A party sent in pursuit a few days later was overpowered with the loss of two men. On May 29th the savages massacred a family of six persons at Thistle Valley in Sanpete co., slaying two others about the same time. In July three settlers were murdered, and several wounded. Many cattle had now been driven off, and the people of Sanpete, Sevier, Millard, Piute, Beaver, Iron, Washington, and Kane counties kept guard over their stock with armed and mounted men. Between Jan. and the beginning of April 1866 several raids were made in Kane co., five settlers being killed, and a man named Peter Shirts with his family sustaining a siege for several weeks until relieved by militia. Between April 22d and the end of June six persons were killed and others wounded in Sanpete and Piute counties, two of them while attempting to recover cattle driven off from the Spanish Fork reservation. Early in 1867 James J. Peterson with his wife and daughter were killed near Glenwood, Sevier co., and their bodies mutilated. The vigilance of the militia kept the Indians in check for the remainder of this year, and only three other settlers were killed, the soldiery also losing three of their number. F. H. Head, sup. of Indian affairs, in Ind. Aff. Rept, 1866, p. 124, states that the number of marauders was not more than 50 or 60.
79Sevier and Piute counties were entirely abandoned, together with the settlements of Berrysville, Winsor, upper and lower Kanab, Shunesburg, Springdale, Northup, and many ranches in Kane co., and Pangwitch and Fort Sanford in Iron co. Smith's Rise, Progress, and Travels, 30. Six flourishing settlements in Piute co., four on the borders of Sanpete, and fifteen in Iron, Kane, and Washington counties, were entirely abandoned. Joint memorial of legislature, in Laws of Utah, 1878, p. 167.
80For newspaper reports of Indian depredations, difficulties, expeditions, and battles between 1863 and 1867, see, among others, The Deseret News, Jan. 21, 28, Feb. 11, March 18, Apr. 8, 15, 22, May 13, 20, July 1, 1863, June 7, 1865, May 10, 1866, June 5, 12, 1867; Union Vedette, July 8, 13, 31, Aug. 4, 17, Nov. 5, 9, 1865; S. F. Bulletin, Jan. 26, Apr. 14, 15, May 4, June 9, July 10, 1863, Aug. 8, 1864, Apr. 20, 1866; S. F. Alta, Feb. 17, 19, May 8, June 11, 12. July 6, 7, 1863, Aug. 12, Sept. 3, 1864, July 8, 1865, May 1, 16, 22, June 10, 14, 15, July 31, Aug. 8, 1867; S. F. Call, Jan. 5, March 22, June 8, 14, 21, Aug. 10, 11, Oct. 29, 1865, May 14, June 2, 4, 5, 9, 11, July 24, Aug. 1, 3, 8, 9, 1867; Sac. Union, Jan. 31, Feb. 12, 13, 17, Apr. 14, 28, May 16, 30, June 13, 1863, Apr. 20, July 30, Aug. 20, 31, 1864, Feb. 7, June 9, Aug. 4, 26, 31, 1865, Aug. 5, 1867; Gold Hill News, March 17, July 8, 1865; Carson Appeal, June 10, Aug. 2, 1865; Boisé Statesman, June 8, Dec. 12, 1865, Nov. 9 1867; Watsonville Pajaro Times, May 16, 1863.
81See the certificate of Gov. Charles Durkee, appended in 1869 to the joint (cont.)
After the affair of Bear River treaties were concluded with the Shoshones and Bannacks on the 12th and 14th of October, 1863,82 whereby travel on the principal routes to Nevada and California was rendered secure, the stipulations being faithfully observed, and the Indians receiving in return annuity goods to the value of $21,000 for a term of twenty years.83 In June 1865 a treaty was made with a number of the Utah tribes, whereby they agreed to remove within one year to a reservation in the Uintah Valley, relinquishing their claim to all other lands within the territory, receiving as compensation $25,-000 annually for the first ten years, $20,000 for the next twenty years, and $15,000 for thirty years thereafter.84 Annuities were also to be granted to the chiefs, dwellings erected for them, and lands ploughed, enclosed, and supplied with live-stock and farming implements. A school was to be maintained for ten years, during nine months in the year; grist and lumber mills and mechanics' shops were to be built and equipped at the expense of the government, and $7,000 voted annually for ten years in aid of various industries. The Indians were to be protected on their reservation; must not make war except in self-defence; and must not steal, or if they did, the stolen
(81cont.) memorial, in Laws of Utah, 1878, p. 167. Geo. W. Emery, who was governor in Feb. 1878, stated that he knew nothing of the facts, and had no recommendation to make. Two former memorials had been forwarded, the first in 1868. House Misc. Doc., 99, 40th Cong. 2d Sess., 19; the second in 1869. Id., 41st Cong. 1st Sess.
82The first in Tooele Valley and the second at Soda Springs. They were confirmed by the senate, but with amendments which were forwarded to Gov. Doty, with instructions to obtain the consent of the Indians. Ind. Aff. Rept, 1864, p. 16. On the 30th of July, 1863, a treaty had been made with Pocatello and others whereby the roads to the Beaver Head and Boisé River gold mines and the northern California and southern Oregon roads were made secure. Another treaty was concluded with the western Shoshones at Ruby Valley, Oct. 1st. Rept of James Duane Doty, in Id., 1864, p. 175.
83Id., 176. In his message to the legislature, dated Dec. 12, 1861, Gov. Doty remarks: 'These are the first treaties ever made by the U.S. with the bands of Shoshones; and it is somewhat remarkable that they have adhered to their stipulations with a fidelity equal to that of most civilized nations.' Utah Jour. Legisl., 1864-5, pp. 11-12.
84The appropriations were to be made on the supposition that the Indian tribes would muster 5,000 souls, and were to be increased or diminished in proportion to their numbers. Ind. Aff. Rept, 1865, p. 151.
property must be returned, or its value deducted from their annuities.85 Under these stipulations, though the treaty was not formally ratified, many of the Utahs, among whom was the chief Blackhawk, were gathered and dwelt in peace on the reservation.
In 1864 a memorial had been presented by the Utah legislature, asking that the Indians be removed from their smaller reservations,86 and in the same year acts were passed by congress authorizing the appointment of a surveyor-general for Utah, providing that the Indian title to agricultural and mineral lands be extinguished, and the lands laid open to settlement, ordering the superintendent of Indian affairs to collect as many of the tribes as possible in the Uintah Valley, and appropriating for agricultural improvements the sum of $30,000.87 The site was well selected, being remote from routes and settlements, and enclosed by mountain ranges, which were impassable for loaded teams during nine or ten months in the year. It contained at least two millions of acres,88 portions of it being well adapted for agriculture and grazing, and was well supplied with timber and water-power. In the summer of 1868 about 130 acres were under cultivation, and it was estimated that the value of the produce would reach $15,000; but on the 1st of July swarms of grasshoppers settled
85A synopsis of the provisions of this treaty, which was negotiated by O. H. Irish, superintendent of Indian affairs in 1865, will be found in Id., 150-1. See also Deseret News, June 14, 1865.
86Utah Acts, 18634, pp. 7-10, 13.
87U.S. Acts, 38th Cong. 1st Sess., 67-8; 38th Cong. 2d Sess., 16-17; House Ex. Doc., 46 Cong. 3d Sess., xxvi. 971-3. The salary of the surveyor-general was to be $3,000 a year, and his powers and duties similar to these of the surveyor-general of Oregon. The usual school reservations were made. By act of July 16, 1868, it was ordered that the public lands of the territory should constitute a new land district, to be named the Utah district, and that the preemption, homestead, and other laws of the U.S. should be extended over it. Id., 973-4. In 1862 this district was merged with that of Colorado. U.S. Acts, 37th Cong. 2d Sess., 51, 100-1. In Ind. Aff. Rept, 1864, p. 16, Commissioner Wm P. Dale states that the Uintah Valley had been set apart for an Indian reservation as early as Oct. 1861, but that on account of the imperfect geographical knowledge of the country its exact limits could not then be defined.
88Id., 17. The tract enclosed the whole region drained by the Uintah River and its upper branches, as far as its junction with the Green River.
on the land, and within a week nine tenths of the crop were destroyed. In other years the result was fairly encouraging, when it is considered that the Indian is by nature a hunter, averse to all manual labor, and subsists mainly on meat. For the year ending June 30, 1869, the amount appropriated for the Uintah agency was but $5,000.89 Small as this sum was, it served to prevent any serious depredations,90 for a bale of blankets or a few sacks of flour, distributed in proper season, accomplished more than their weight in gold expended in military operations and military surveillance.
89Pardon Dodds, in Ind. Aff. Rept, 1868, 156. Dodds, who was then Indian agent at Uintah, states that at least $20,000 was needed.
90During the summer of 1868 a few unimportant raids were made in Sanpete co., whereupon Col Head and others repaired to Strawberry Valley, Uintah, and a treaty of peace was concluded. Deseret News, Aug. 26, 1868.
Among the most recent works on Utah is The History of Salt Lake City and its Founders, by Edward W. Tullidge. The first volume, which is a reprint from Tullidge's Quarterly Magazine, was issued in 1884, and relates the leading incidents of Mormon history between 1845 and 1865, the purpose being to continue it to a more recent date, adding thereto the records of other towns and counties, and forming when completed a history of the entire territory. The work is somewhat in the nature of a compilation, and consists largely of copies of official reports and documents, together with numerous extracts from other works, more especially from Stenhouse's Rocky Mountain Saints. Mr Tullidge follows the text of Stenhouse very closely in portions of his work, though writing from a different standpoint, and sometimes borrows his language with very slight alterations and without acknowledgment. The chapters relating to the Utah war occupy a large portion of the first volume. They are carefully considered, and contain much that is not found elsewhere. The work is published by authority of the city council, and under supervision of its committee on revision.
The Rocky Mountain Saints: A Full and Complete History of the Mormons, from the First Vision of Joseph Smith to the Last Courtship of Brigham Young, by T. B. H. Stenhouse. New York, 1873. This work, as its title indicates, carries the story of Mormonism from its earliest inception up to within a few years of the death of Brigham. Besides giving a complete outline of the political history of the latter-day saints, it contains chapters on the Mormon theocracy and priesthood, on polygamy, and on the book of Mormon, together with descriptions of the domestic and social condition of the Mormons, and of the various outrages commonly ascribed to them, more especially of the Mountain Meadows massacre. The book is profusely illustrated, entertaining in style, and though containing 761 pages of printed matter, can be read with interest throughout. The author was for 25 years a Mormon missionary and elder, during which period he was on familiar terms with the apostles, and for twelve years held daily intercourse with the president of the church. As he relates, he 'has no pet theories to advance, no revelations to announce, no personal animosity to satisfy. He has simply outgrown the past.' Though at times unduly severe, it is in the main one of the most impartial works yet published by anti-Mormon writers. Stenhouse, a Scotchman by birth, was converted to Mormonism in 1846, being then 21 years of age. He afterward labored as a missionary in England, Scotland, and various parts of Europe, (cont.)
(90cont.) founding the Southampton conference, and being for three years president of the Swiss and Italian missions. In 1869 he apostatized, and soon afterward removed to the city of New York, where he found employment as a journalist and wrote the above work. His decease occurred in 1882. See Stenhouse's Tell it All, preface; Burton's Rocky Mountain Saints, 272; S. F. Bulletin, March 7, 1882.
Exposé of Polygamy in Utah: A Lady's Life among the Mormons, by Mrs T. B. H. Stenhouse.New York, 1872. Tell It All: The Story of a Life's Experience in Mormonism. An Autobiography; by Mrs T. B. H. Stenhouse. Hartford, Conn., 1879. An Englishwoman in Utah: The Story of a Life's Experience in Mormonism. An Autobiography; by Mrs T. B. H. Stenhouse. London, 1880. The last two of these works are almost identical, except that one or two chapters of the former are omitted in the latter volume. Beginning with her first introduction to Mormonism about the year 1849, until the date of her own and her husband's apostasy, some 20 years later, the authoress gives what is claimed to be a plain, unvarnished record of facts which have come under her own notice. A few months after the publication of the Exposé of Polygamy, Mrs Stenhouse was asked to lecture on that subject, and wherever she spoke was requested to give her narrative more circumstantially and in more detail. Finally she accepted the suggestion of a gentile newspaper, published at S. L. City, to 'tell it all.' Hence the title and subject-matter of this work. Though claiming no literary merit, it is well told, and certainly tells enough, while containing nothing that can be termed positively indelicate.
The Mormon Prophet and his Harem: or, An Authentic History of Brigham Young, his Numerous Wives and Children, by Mrs G. V. Waite. Cambridge, 1866. Apart from the opening chapter, which contains the early life of Brigham, the first half of this work is devoted to the political history of Utah. Its main interest centres, however, in the information given in the latter portion, as to the family and social relations of the Mormon leader. There is the inevitable chapter on polygamy, written, the authoress remarks, as dispassionately as the writer's utter abhorrence of the system will permit. There is also a chapter where the mysteries of the endowment house are described in the form of a burlesque, and others where Brigham is set forth as prophet, seer, revelator, and grand archee. The volume is compact and well written; but though many of the facts may have been gathered, as is claimed, from original sources, they contain little that is not well known at the present day.
Life in Utah: or, The Mysteries and Crimes of Mormonism, being an Exposé of the Sacred Rites and Ceremonies of the Latter-Day Saints, with a Full and Authentic History of Polygamy and the Mormon Sect from its Origin to the Present Time, by J. H. Beadle. Philadelphia, etc., 1870. Though the author claims to have had access to valuable personal records and other private sources of information, his book has no special value. There are chapters on Mormon society, Mormon theology and theocracy, Mormon mysteries, theoretical and practical polygamy, but all these matters have been better treated by others, while the historical portions of the work are far inferior to those of Stenhouse. In relating the crimes of the Mormons, Mr Beadle claims that the statements for and against them have been equally presented. The reader need only turn to his account of the Mountain Meadows massacre to find that this is not the case. Here, and elsewhere, in the usual vein of looseness and exaggeration, crimes are alleged against the saints that have never been sustained, and all extenuating circumstances are omitted. Murders are laid to their charge of which there is no evidence, and which are not even mentioned by the leading authorities. The volume forms one of the many works that have been written on Mormonism with a view to pander to the vicious tastes of a certain class of readers rather than to furnish information.
The following is a more complete list of the authorities consulted in the preceding chapters: Taylor's Rem., MS.; Wells' Narr., MS.; Utah Notes, MS.; Jennings' Mat. Progr., MS.; Early Hist. Carson Valley, MS.; Little's Mail Service, MS.; Incidents in Utah Hist., MS.; Nebeker's Early Justice, MS.; (cont.)
|p. 638||(90cont.) U. S. Acts and Res., 31st Cong. 1st Sess., 53-8, 111, 307, 453-8; 33d Cong. 2d Sess., 611; 35th Cong. 1st Sess., 368, app. iii.-iv.; 37th Cong. 2d Sess., 51, 100-1; 38th Cong. 1st Sess., 67; Id., 2d Sess., 16-17; 46th Cong. 3d Sess., H. Ex. Doc., 47, pt 3, 947, 972-3; H. Jour., 31st Cong. 1st Sess., 458, 1804; Id., 2d Sess. 602; 32d Cong. 2d Sess., 72, 104, 232, 243-4, 780; 33d Cong. 1st Sess., 1563; Id., 2d Sess., 164, 246; 34th Cong. 3d Sess., 253, 376; 35th Cong. 1st Sess., 1325, 1366; Id., 2d Sess., 323, 745, 759, 761; 36th Cong. 1st Sess., 1455; 37th Cong. 2d Sess., 1271, 1318-19; Id., 3d Sess., 737; 38th Cong. 2d Sess., 562; 39th Cong. 1st Sess., 1339, 1383; H. Misc. Doc., 31st Cong. 1st Sess., no. 18; 33d Cong. 1st Sess., no. 58; 35th Cong. 1st Sess., no. 100; 36th Cong. 1st Sess., no. 32; Id., 2d Sess., no. 10; 37th Cong. 2d Sess., no. 78; 38th Cong. 2d Sess., no. 53; 39th Cong. 2d Sess., no. 75; 40th Cong. 2d Sess., no. 99; 41st Cong. 1st Sess., no. 19; H. Ex. Doc., 31st Cong. 1st Sess., no. 5, 1002-4; 32d Cong. 1st Sess., no. 2, 272, 444-6; Id., no. 25, 1-4, 7-8, 14-33: Id., 2d Sess., no. 1, 299-300, 437-45; 33d Cong. 1st Sess., no. 1, pt 1, 12, 441-7, pt 3, 821; Id., no. 18; Id., 2d Sess., no. 1, pt 1, 224, pt 2, 63; 34th Cong. 1st Sess., no. 1, pt 1,504, 515-26, 568-76, pt 2, 166-8; Id., 3d Sess., no. 1, 6-7, no. 37, 2-3, 128, 142-3; 35th Cong. 1st Sess., no. 2, pt 1, 23-6, pt 2, 6-9, 21-38; Id., no. 33, passim; no. 71, passim; no. 93, 40-9, 77, 86-96; no. 99, passim; no. 138, passim; Id., 2d Sess., no. 2, pt 1, 8-10, 69-92, 77; pt 2, passim; pt 3, 780 2; 36th Cong. 1st Sess., no. 1, pt 2, 14-15, 121-256, 608; Id., no. 78; 37th Cong. 2d Sess., no. 58, no. 97; Id., no. 3, 78-85, no. 30, passim; 39th Cont. 2d Sess., no. 1, pt 2, 14-26; no. 20, 7-10; 41st Cong. 2d Sess., passim; Id., 3d Sess., no. 1, pt 2, it. 72; H. Com. Rept, 33d Cong. 2d Sess., no, 39, passim; 36th Cong. 1st Sess., no. 201, passim; S. Jour., 31st Cong. 2d Sess., 406; 33d Cong. 1st Sess., 1003; Id., 2d Sess., 574-5; 34th Cong. 1st and 2d Sess., 943; Id., 3d Sess., 63, 298; 35th Cong. 1st Sess., 338, 1007-8; Id., 2d Sess., 450, 590, 660, 36th Cont. 2d Sess., 521-59; 37th Cong. 2d Sess., 1161; Id., 3d Sess., 618; 38th Cong. 1st Sess., 1009, 1029; Id., 2d Sess., 503; S. Ex. Doc., 32d Cong. 2d Sess., no. 33, passim; 33d Cont. 2d Sess., no. 33, 1-11; 35th Cong. 1st Sess., no. 67; passim; Id., 2d Sess., no. 36, 68-73; 36th Cong. 1st Sess., no. 32, passim; no. 42, passim; no. 52, 301-6; Id., 2d Sess., no. 1, 69-73, 224; 37th Cont. 1st Sess., no. 1, 58; S. Misc. Doc., 35th Cong. 1st Sess., no. 201, passim; no. 240, passim; 36th Cong. 1st Sess., no. 12, passim; 37th Cong. 3d Sess., no. 37; S. Com. Rept, 37th Cong. 3d Sess., no. 87, passim; 45th Cont. 2d Sess., no. 142, passim; Cong. Globe, 1849-50, 1850-1, 1851-2, 1853-4, 1854-5, 1855-6, 1856-7, 1857-8, 1858-9, 1859-60, 1860-1, 1861-2, 1862-3, 1863-4, 1864-5, 1865-6, passim; Sec. Inter. Rept, 40th Cong. 2d Sess., 10-11, 173-89, 361-95; Sec. Treas. Rept, 1865, 326; 1866, 391; 1867, 442-3; Com. Ind. Aff. Rept, 1856, 227-9, 267; 1857, 306-8, 324, 380; 1859, 22, 365-73; 1861, 21; 1862, 210-14; 1863, 419-20; 1864, 16, 175-8; 1865, 143-4, 147-53; 1866, 124-5, 128-9; 1868, 5-6, 151-2; 1869, 270-1; 1870, 141-4, 191-2, 330-59; 1871, 545-51, 606-51, 683; Wilson, Ind. Agt at G. S. L., Rept, Sept. 4, 1849, passim; Chart. and Const., ii. 1236-40; Stat. 8th Census, passim; Rept Corn. Land-Office, 1864, 20; Millen. Star, xx. 107-9, 125, 186-9, 532, xxii. 348, 453-4, xxiv. 241-5, 257-61, xxvii. 118-20, 133-6, 150-2, 165-6, xxxii. 744-5, xxxvii. 673-6; S. Jour. (Cal.), 1850, 429-42, 1296; 1853, 645; S. Jour. (Nev.), 1867, 64-5; Utah Gov. Mess., 1870, 7-18; Jour. Legis., 1851-68; Acts, 1855-68; Tullidge's Hist. S. L. City, 5, 24-32, 56-8, 63, 336; Id., Quart. Mag., i. 190-8, 479, 526-8, 536-7; Id., Life of Young, 30-1; 196-212, 239-318, 329-55, 385-7; Id., Women, etc., 244, 353-8, 414-22, 441-8; Stenhouse's R. M. Saints, p. xxi., 262-471, passim, 591-621, 713; Id., Les Mormons, 39-41, 148-50, 172-202; Stenhouse's (Mrs) Tell It All, 248, 266-9, 324-39, 380-5, 462-3, 486-7, 496-8, 500-26, 548-9, 627-52; Id., Englishwoman, passim; Burton's City of the Saints, 2, 5, 21-5, 209-32, 265-99, 304-59, 406-32, 506-82; Lee's Morm., 16-35, 132-3, 218-50, 232, 240, 269-87, 379 -84; Remy's Journey to G. S. L., i. 189-200, 214-18, 446-52, 470-95, ii. 212-14, 240-5; Richards' Narr., MS., 22-4, 35, 123-4; Richards' (Mrs) Remin., MS., 39-46; Revue des Deux Mondes, 194-211; Rusling's Across Amer., 183-90; Robinson's Sinners and Saints, 162-5, 180; Rae's Westward by Rail, 127-8, 140, 169-82; Paddock's La Tour, 301-2, 323, 348-9; Hunt's Merch. Mag., xxx. 639; (cont.)|
|p. 639||(90cont.) Hickman's Dest. Angel, 57-68, 107-12, 118-49, 158, 166-7, 205-9; Hyde's Morm., 28-49, 121-3, 147-50, 177-82; Greeley's Overland Jour., 206-57; Gun-nison's Morm., vii.-xiv., 83, 141-3, 146-7; Gwin's Mem., MS.; Green's Morm., 453-4; Glines (J. H.), in Utah Co. Sketches, MS., 21-2; Llewellyn, in Id., 43; Jones, in Id., 54-6; Morrison, in Id., 136-48; McFadyen, in Id., 153-7; Teas-dale, in Id., 100-11; Olshausen's Gesch. Morm., 153-89, 237-44; Ferris' Utah and Morm., 167-9, 185-90; Kirchoff's Reisb., etc., i. 107-8; Marshall's Through Amer., 177, 192; McClure's Three Thousand Miles, etc., 150, 435; Waite's The Morm. Prophet, 23-59, 60-113, 122-31, 214-46, 266-72, 278; Murphy's Min. Res., 87; Little's Jacob Hamblin, 45-7, 56-7, 75, 140; Linforth's Route, etc., 75-77, 104-16; Ludlow's Heart of Cont., 301-2; Mackay's The Morm., 176, 199-200, 233, 238-48, 258-9, 276; Ebey's Jour., MS., i. 146, v. 154, 219; Car-valho's Incid. of Trav., 141-3, 151-9, 188-99; Beadle's Life in Utah, 168-266, 390-485; Id., Western Wilds, 300-9, 490-530; ld., Uudevel. West, 646-53; Codman' s Round Trip, 171-2, 210-45; Cradlebaugh' s Speech, passim; Bertrand's Mem. Morm., 97-133, 246-8; Busch, Die Morm., 53-5; Id., Gesch. Morm., 46-158, 307-30; Dana's Great West, 271; Schiel's Reise, etc., 81-94, 100-2; Bowles' Our New West, 226, 266-8; Young's Wife No. 19, 228-61, 270-6, 341-8, 382-4; Townsend's Morm. Trials, 32-4; Wadsworth's Wagon Road, 12; Campbell's Idado, 11-12; Corr. Hist. Soc. Mont., 44-5; Comittant's Civili. Inconnues, 29; Clark's Statement, MS., 10; Dixon's White Conquest, i. 188-98; Siskiyou Co. Affairs, MS., 21; Revue Orient. et Amer., v. 299-306; Cradlebaugh's Nev. Biog., MS., 1; Kinney's (J. .F.) Speech, Mar. 17, 1864; Doc. Hist. Mex., 3d ser., 100-12; Moore's Pion. Explor., MS., 15-19; Marcy's Thirty Years, 267-75; De Lacy's Montana as It Is, 81; Brackett's U.S. Cavalry, 177-9; Hutchings' Cal. Mag., ii. 196, iv. 345-9; Hygiene U.S. Army, 332-3; Atlantic Monthly, iii. 573-84; De Smet's West. Missions, 396; Boadicea's The Morm. Wife; Frisbie's Retain., MS., 32-4; Chandless' Visit to Salt Lake, 154, 157 et seq.; Trans. Wyom. Acad. Sciences, 1882, 81-2; Simpson, Explor., 23; Life among the Morm., 186-93; Smith's Rise, Prog., etc., 19-30; Saxon's Five Years, 292-4; Snow's Poems, i. 225-6, 265-6; Stansbury's Explor. and Surv., 130-5, 148-50; Spence's Settler's Guide, 251, 259-60; Tucker's Morm., 222-46, 277, 280-7; Times and Seasons, v. 692; Utah Pamph., Polit., no. 14, 6-8; Stanford's Weber Co., MS., 23; Ward's Husband in Utah, 19-60, 178-290; Hughes' Voice from West, passim; Lee (J. D.), Trial, passim; Smith's Mystery and Crime, 30; Hollister's Resour. of Utah, 8; Huntington's Vocab. Utah and Shoshone Dialects, 27-9; Hand-book on Morm., 67-72; Hittell's Scrapbook, 94; Hayes' Scraps, Cal. Pol., vii. 57; Id., Indians, v. 214-17; ]d., Los Angeles, iv. 96, viii. 228-31, xvii. 3, 7; Id., S. Bernardino, i. 53, 58, 60; Id., Utah, passim; Rodenbough's Second Dragoons, 172-3; Richardson's Beyond the Mississ., 347-8, 362-3; Shelton (R.) and Meik's Def. of Morm., passim; Cram's Topog. Mem., 25-32; Crimes of L. D. Saints, 48-82; Möllhausen's Tagebuch, 429-30; Id., Reisen, etc., 25, 141, 410; Id., Das Mormon., 35-7, 102-7; Pratt's Autobiog., 483; Morse's Wash. Ter., MS., ii. 15-18; Smucker's Hist. of Morm., 216; Rinehart's Mem., MS., 3; Harper's Mag., xliv. 602; Pac. R. R. Repts, ii. 26-7; Putnam's Mag., ii. 263, v. 225-36; Utah Rev., Feb. 1882, 243-6; Trib. Alman., 1850, 51; 1854, 67; Amer. Alman., 1850, 109; 1851, 297; 1852, 116; 1853-61, passim; Fisher's Amer. Stat. Ann., 1854, 120; Sloan's Utah Gazett., 24-8; Amer. Quart. Reg., iii. 588-95; S. L. Direc., 1869, 64, 173; Des. News, 1855-77, too numerous to quote; Vidette, July 31, 1865; Review, Jan. 27, 1872; Contributor, v. 312-13, 446; S. F. Alta, 1849-76, too numerous to quote; Chronicle, June 17, 1877; Jan. 13, 1881; Examiner, Nov. 8, 1871; Jan. 10, 1872; July 21, 1875; Times, 1867, Feb. 2, June 4, 6, 13, Aug. 9, 15, Oct. 25; 1868, May 8, July 13, Sept. 29, Oct. 10, Dec. 17; 1869, Jan. 4, Mar. 23, May 20, Sept. 16; Post, 1877, Mar. 13, 22, 23, 24; 1878, Oct. 11; Herald, 1851, Nov. 2, 4; 1852, Aug. 21; 1853, June 12, Sept. 30, Dec. 3, 24; 1854, Feb. 22, May 31, June 25, Aug. 23, Oct. 1, 19; 1855, Mar. 14, Apr. 6, May 7, July 3; 1856, May 12, Nov. 11, 13; 1857, Feb. 25, May 14, June 19, Oct. 6, 12, 27, Nov. 2, 12, 25, 30, Dec. 1, 7, 17, 30; 1858, Jan. 12, 15, Mar. 11, Apr. 1, May 11, 27, June 29, July 10, Aug. 13; 1861, Jan. 30; Bulletin, too numerous to quote; (cont.)|
|p. 640||(90cont.) Call, 1864, June 25, Aug. 17; 1865, Jan. 5, Mar. 3, May 6, June 1, July 29, Aug. 10, Oct. 3, Nov. 1; 1866, Nov. 1; 1867, Apr. 14, May 14, June 2, July 24, Aug. 1; 1869, Sept. 3; 1872, May 23, Sept. 23, Oct. 14, Nov. 19; 1875, July 18, 21; 1877, Feb. 16, Mar. 9, Apr. 1, May 3; 1881, July 30; Stock Rept, 1874, July 30, Nov. 27; 1875, July 24, 31; 1876, Sept. 23; 1879, May 2; Stock Exchange, Mar. 24, 1877; Californian, Jan. 26, 1848; Min. and Scien. Press, July 31, 1375; Mar. 31, ]877; Courier de S. F., Mar. 26, 1869; Spirit of the Times, July 14, 1877; Pac. Rural Press, Mar. 31, 1877; Wide West, Jan. 3, 1858; Cal. Star, Jan. 29, 1848; Golden Era, May 18, 1856; Oakland Tribune, Mar. 24, 1877; Appleton's Jour., xi. 592-3, 623; Cal., Its Past Hiptory, 211-16; Cal. Mercant. Jour., 1860, 183-4; Sac. Union, 1855-67, too numerous to quote; Bee, May 24, Nov. 2, 1869; Antioch (Cal.) Ledger, Nov. 21, 1875; June 12, 1877; Napa Co. Reporter, Apr. 7, 1877; Calaveras Chron., Mar. 31, 1877; Mariposa Gazette, Mar. 31, 1877; Wilmington Jour., Dec. 9, 1866; Havilah Courier, Apr. 27, 1867; Copperopolis Courier, Mar. 23, 1867; Watsonville, Pajaro Times, May 16, 1863; Petaluma Argus, Mar. 16; 1877; Sonoma Democrat, Mar. 31, 1877; Stockton Herald, Sept. 28, 1871; Independent, June 15, 1867; Nov. 4, 1875; June 11, 1879; San José Argus, Dec. 5, 1874; Herald, June 6, 1877; Times, Nov. 23, 1879; Lassen Advocate, Mar. 31, 1877; Anaheim Gazette, Mar. 24, 31, 1877; Sta Cruz Sentinel, May 12, June 30, 1877; Los Angeles Express, Mar. 24, 31, 1877; Herald, Mar. 24, 1877; Republican, Mar. 23, 24, 1877; San Buenaven-tura, Ventura Signal, Mar. 31, 1877; June 24, 1877; Free Press, Apr. 7, 1877; Winnemucca (Nev.) Silver State, July 19, 1875; Eureka Sentinel, July 17, 1875; Belmont Courier, Oct. 28, 1873; May 5, 1877; Prescott Miner, Dec. 18, 1874; Apr. 11, 1879; Austin, Reese Riv. Reveil., July 12, 1864; Aug. 18, 1865; Oct. 29, 1866; Jan. 22, 1867; Gold Hill News, 1864, Dec. 20; 1865, Mar. 17, July 8; 1872, Sept. 21; 1875, Feb. 1, Apr. 10, July 21, Aug. 4; 1876, Sept. 12; 1877, Mar. 12, May 25; Dayton, Lyon Co. Sentinel, July 16, 1864; Times, Mar. 24, 1877; Elko Independent, Aug. 7, 1875; Apr. 15, 1882; Carson Appeal, June 10, Aug. 2, 1865; Nov. 19, 1874; July 18, 1875; Oct. 27, 1876; State Register, Sept. 10, 1871; Sept. 26, 1872; Kanesville (Iowa) Front. Guard., 1849, Feb. 7, Oct. 3, 17, 31, Nov. 14; 1850, Mar. 6, May 29, June 26, Aug. 21; 1851, Mar. 21, Apr. 18, Aug. 22, Sept. 22; 1852, Feb. 6, 20, Mar. 4, 11, 18, 25; Boisé (Idaho) News, Dec. 5, 1863; Feb. 20, Mar. 5, 1864; Statesman, 1865, June 8, Dec. 12; 1866, Nov. 3; 1867, June 16, Sept. 14, Nov. 2; Idaho City, Idaho World, Oct. 1, 1875; Honolulu (Hawaii) Friend, July 1, 1846; Virginia (Mont.) Madisonian, Nov. 24, 1877; Post, 1866, Oct. 8, 30, Nov. 3; Helena Independent, July 29, 1875; Apr. 5, 1877; Herald, Jan. 6, 1876; Walla Walla (Wash.) Statesman, Oct. 10, 1863; Olympia Pion. and Democ., Aug. 8, 1856; Puget Sound Courier, Sept. 22, 1876; Seattle, Puget Sound Herald, Sept. 15, 1858; Whatcom, Bellingham Bay Mail, Apr. 3, 1875; Portland (Or.) Standard, Apr. 6, 1877; Bee, Oct. 31, 1878; Oregonian, 1859, Oct. 15; 1863, June 10; 1865, Feb. 7, July 8, 13, Aug. 4, 17, Oct. 6, Nov. 9, 11; 1877, Apr. 7; Salem, Oregon Statesman, 1854, Jan. 24, May 2; 1857, July 28, Aug. 11, 18, Sept. 15, 29, Oct. 20, Nov. 3, Dec. 1, 29; 1858, Jan. 5, 12, Feb. 16, Mar. 16, 30, June 15, July 13, Oct. 12; 1862, Apr. 14, June 30; Jacksonville Democ. Times, Mar. 31, 1877; Oregon City, Oregon Argus, 1857, Feb. 27, Dec. 12, 26; 1858, Jan. 2, 23, Feb. 13, 20, 27, Mar. 6, 13, Apr. 24, June 19, July 16, 30, Aug 7, 14, 28, Sept. 11; 1866, Dec. 22; 1868, Sept. 11; Spectator, 1846 Aug. 6 20; Astoria Astorian, July 20, 1878; Roseburg Plaindealer, Apr. 28, 1877; The Dalles Mountaineer, 1866, May 17, June 8; 1867, Feb. 22.|
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