After all that can be said about Mormonism and polygamy in their social or moral relations, it is only when we come to consider them in their political aspect, in their relations to government and governing,
(18cont.) things, both in money and in meat, which is more than is needful for the wants of this people, be kept in the hands of the bishop.' Times and Seasons, v. 416. This revelation was for the information and guidance of the first bishop, Partridge, who is authorized therein to take what he wants for himself and family. The prophet's revelation concerning the order of Enoch is without date, and is entitled 'Revelation given to Enoch concerning the order of the church for the benefit of the poor.' In it is prescribed that there shall be two treasuries: from the first, to be called 'the sacred treasury of the Lord,' nothing can be taken but by the voice of the order, or by commandment; into the second treasury are to be cast all moneys except those reserved for sacred purposes. It is also provided that general consent is necessary for the withdrawal of funds from this, as in the case of the first repository, but common consent in this case is construed to be, if any man shall say to the treasurer, 'I have need of a certain sum,' he shall receive it, provided the asker shall be in full fellowship. The revelation in full will be found in Doctrine and Covenants, 283-9. One of the grounds of complaint brought against the saints in Caldwell county, by the Missourians, was that the former were communists, as has been narrated already. Says the Salt Lake Tribune of May 9, 1874: 'The Mormons paid the United States authorities $318,000 for public lands in Missouri, but were not allowed to enjoy one acre of their purchase.' See also Deseret News, May 13, 1874. At Nauvoo, Joseph had himself appointed trustee in trust of the whole church, and thereafter we hear no more of the order of Enoch until some years subsequent to the establishment of the Deseret colonies. Soon after Joseph's death we find Brigham sole trustee of affairs. During the scenes following the murder of the Smiths, the expulsion from Illinois, and up to the settlement of the migratory saints in Utah, there was little property to care for; but after that, attention was again turned to the matter. Robinson, in his Sinners and Saints, gives a copy of a deed: 'Be it known by these presents, that I, Jessie W. Fox, of Great Salt Lake City, in the county of Great Salt Lake, and territory of Utah, for and in consideration of the sum of one hundred ($100) dollars and the good-will which I have to the church of Jesus Christ of latter-day saints, give and convey unto Brigham Young, trustee in trust for the said church, his successor in office and assigns, all my claims to and ownership of the following-described property, to wit: One house and lot, $1,000; one city lot, $100; east half of lot 1, block 12, $50; lot 1, block 14, $75; two cows, $50; two calves, $15; one mare, $100; one colt, $50; one watch, $20; one clock, $12; clothing, $300; beds and bedding, $125; one stove, $20; household furniture, $210; total, $2,127; together with all the rights, privileges, and appurtenances thereunto belonging or appertaining. I also covenant and agree that I am the lawful claimant and owner of said property, and will warrant and forever defend the same unto the said trustee in trust, his successor in office and assigns, against the claims of my heirs, assigns, or any person whomsoever.' Then follows the attestation of the witness, and the formal certificate of the judge of the probate court that the signer of the above transfer personally appeared before him on April 2, 1857, and made the customary acknowledgment. Robinson also gives a list of rules, which I have not room for in detail, but which the reader may find in pp. 223-5, in the work already quoted. William Hall, who was a member of the church from 1840 until 1847, says that at the time of the exodus from Nauvoo a mercantile firm was appointed to act as trustees, not only for the church property, but also for individuals. These trustees were to sell the property (cont.)
that we touch the core of the matter. Those who wax the hottest against the latter-day saints and their polygamous practices are not as a rule among the purest of our people. They care no more, indeed,
(18cont.) left behind, and account to the proper owners. Mormonism Exposed, 66-70. Says Ex-elder John Hyde, jun.: 'In 1854 Brigham Young commanded the people to consecrate by legal transfer all right and title to all personal property. Quitclaim deeds were drawn up, and from their land to their wearing apparel the maiority transferred everything to Brigham or his successor as trustee in trust for the latter-day saints; and some, in the exuberance of enthusiasm, threw in their wives and families.' Mormonism, 37-9. The legislature, by act approved Jan. 18, 1855, legalized these transfers, and provided a form in blank therefor. See Utah Laws (ed. 1855), 268-9; (ed. 1866), 92-3. At the semiannual conference held in Oct. 1873, the subject of reviving the order was again agitated. Elder David McKenzie touched upon the ultimate establishment of the order of Enoch in a very emphatic manner. Deseret News, Oct. 15, 1873. The Salt Lake Tribune of March 21, 1874, quotes the elder as follows: 'We should give thanks and praise to almighty God that there is a chance, a door opened, by which we may take a step towards establishing the order of Enoch.' Mrs Stenhouse says efforts were made to revive the order before the completion of the railways, which were not finished until 1869. Englishwoman in Utah, 371-2. Rev. Clark Smith, author of a 12mo pamphlet entitled Mystery and Crime in the Land of the Ute, states that the plan for reviving the order was matured during the winter of 1873-4 at St George, where Brigham and a few of his leaders were at that time. During the early part of 1874, scarcely a sermon was delivered without a reference to the order and an assurance that all joining would be benefited both spiritually and temporally. On May 9th an election of officers was held. Brigham was was chosen president; Geo. Smith, Danl H. Wells, and the twelve apostles, vice-presidents; David McKenzie, George Goddard, D.O. Calder, P. A. Schettler, John T. Caine, and James Jack, secretaries; Thos W. Ellerbeck, general book-keeper; Edward Hunter, treasurer; and Horace J. Eldridge, John Sharp, Ferezmore Little, James Van Cott, Moses Thatcher, Thos Dinwiddie, and Elijah Sheets, directors. S. L. C. Tribune, May 16, 1874.
The dogma of adoption for eternity originated after Joseph's time. Hall says he first heard of it about the date of the expulsion from Nauvoo. Mormonism Exposed, 70. It was ascertained that many of the saints had inter-married with gentile stock, and were thus debarred from a full enjoyment of the rights and privileges of the house and lineage of Abraham. But these lost blessings could be restored by ingraftment upon the stock of one of the twelve tribes of Israel, represented by the twelve apostles, each of whom was deemed as in lineal descent from Abraham, tracing his consanguinity to Isaac and Jacob, and thence to himself as a chief of one of the tribes. Romans, xi. 16, is quoted as authorizing the doctrine, which requires every member of the church, except the twelve, to choose a father fresh one of the latter. The father may be either younger or older than the son, but in any case assumes the character of guardian, with full control of the labor and estate of the adopted son Many young men give themselves over to the leaders as 'eternal sons,' in the hope of sharing the honor of their adopted parents. W.C. Statues was Brigham's adopted son, and D. Candland, Heber C. Kimball's. Hyde, Mormonism, 110. Witbert Earls is also mentioned as Kimball's son. Hall, Mormonism Exposed, 70.
About 1840, in obedience to a special revelation, Joseph Smith established a secret society known as the Order Lodge. None save persons of high standing in the church could gain admission, the avowed object of the organization being induction into the higher mysteries of the priesthood. J. C. Bennett writes as follows of this order: 'The lodge-room is carefully prepared and (cont.)
about the half-dozen wives of the Mormon than about the half-dozen mistresses of the congressman. As Judge Roseborough, in a very able dictation to my stenographer, remarks: "When I came here I was a
(18cont.) consecrated; and from 12 to 24 sprigs of cassia, olive branches, cedar boughs, or other evergreens, are tastefully arranged about it. These are intended to represent the eternal life and unmingled bliss, which, in the celestial kingdom, will be enjoyed by all who continue in full fellowship.'…The candidate is stripped naked, blindfolded, and in this condition marched around the lodge-room, the most excellent Grand Master repeating: 'I will bring the blind by a way they know not; I will lead them in paths that they have not known; I will make darkness light before them, and crooked things straight. These things will I do unto them, and not forsake them.' The candidate having knelt before the altar, the following oath is administered: 'In the name of Jesus Christ, the son of God, I now promise and swear, truly, faithfully, and without reserve, that I will serve the Lord with a perfect heart and a willing mind, dedicating myself, wholly and unreservedly, in my person and effects, to the upbuilding of his kingdom on earth, according to his revealed will. I furthermore promise and swear that I will regard the first president of the church of Jesus Christ of latter-day saints as the supreme head of the church on earth, and obey him the same as the supreme God, in all written revelations, given under the solemnities of a "thus saith the Lord," and that I will always uphold the presidency, right or wrong. I furthermore promise and swear that I will never touch a daughter of Adam unless she is given me of the Lord. I furthermore promise and swear that no gentile shall ever be admitted to the secrets of this holy institution, or participate in its blessings. I furthermore promise and swear that I will assist the Daughter of Zion in the utter destruction of apostates, and that I will assist in setting up the Kingdom of Daniel in these last days, by the power of the highest and the sword of his might. I furthermore promise and swear that I will never communicate the secrets of this degree to any person in the known world, except it be to a true and lawful brother, binding myself under no less a penalty than that of having melted lead poured into my ear. So help me God and keep me faithful.' Hist. of the Saints, 275-6.
I have thousands of references to articles written and sermons preached on the doctrines of the church. The tabernacle and bowery sermons have been reported and published in the Deseret News, from its first publication up to 1860. Besides President Young, the prominent speakers were Parley P. Pratt, Orson Hyde, Orson Pratt, Lorenzo Snow, Heber C. Kimball, George A. Smith, John Taylor, Franklin D. Richards, David Fullmer, J. W. Cummings, John Young, Wilford Woodruff, John D. McAllister, Joseph Young, Daniel H. Wells, Cyrus H. Wheelock, Robert T. Burton, Jacob Gates, Charles H. Bassett, and many others. For duties of bishops, see Deseret News, 1850, Aug. 10; patriarchal notice, Sept. 21; revelation, Dec. 28; 1851, for religious questions and answers, Jan. 11; minutes special conference of seventies, Jan. 25; appel. presidency and apostolate, Mar. 8; min. gen. con., 19; Patriarch Smith's letter to the saints throughout the world, and letter from P. P. Pratt to Brigham Young, Nov. 29; letter from Thos Bullock, president of seventies, Dec. 27; 1852, letter from O. Jones to Pres. Young, Jan. 10; offices in church, authority explained, Jan. 24; signs of the times, and advice to the saints, Feb. 7; disc. by Brigham, Feb. 9; letter, Patriarch Smith, Feb. 20; opinions about Mormonism (from Harper's Mag.), Feb. 21; min. con. new tabernacle, Apr. 17; Mormon question (N. Y. Tribune and Herald), May 1; letter of defence (in N. Y. Herald), May 15; reflections, O. Pratt, June 26; disc. by Kimball, Aug. 15; gen. funeral sermon by O. Pratt, Aug. 21; Brigham on apostles, News extra, p. 25; remarks by Taylor and Kimball, Sept. 4; speech by Kimball, Sept. 14; special con., (cont.)
democrat. They pretended to be democrats, but, I found them such democrats as hell is full of. They are neither democrats nor republicans. I did not care about matters of belief, if they were American citizens.
(18cont.) Sept. 18; disc. by Brigham, Oct. 2; min. gen. con., Oct. 16 and Nov. 6; epistle by Young, Oct. 16; the Mormons the Mahometans of 19th cent. (N. Y. Herald), Nov. 2; remarks, Young, Aug. 26, Nov. 6; 1853, sermon by P. P. Pratt, Jan. 19; address by Taylor, Jan. 19; disc. by Benson, Feb. 1; sermon, Pratt, Mar. 2; Brigham and Pratt, address, Apr. 2; Brigham, disc., Apr. 13; min. gem con., Apr. 16, 30; epistle pres., rept quorum seventies, Apr. 16; ad., Hyde, May 14; ad., Brigham, May 14; disc., Brigham, July 6 and 20; speech, Hyde, July 30; disc., Brigham, Aug. 24, 31, and Oct. 1; min. gen. con., Oct. 15 and 29; ep. pres., Oct. 15; disc., Brigham, Sept. 7; ad., H. Kimball, Nov. 12; ad., tabernacle, Nov. 24; Mormon vs gentile, Nov. 24; ad., Brigham, Dec. 8; Mormonism, Dec. 8; sermon, Taylor, Dec. 22; 1854, disc., H. Kimball, Jan. 4; Smith, Jan. 18; reg. dialogue, and art. on restitution, Jan. 12; bible and Mormonism, Jan. 19; repts of quorums of seventies, Mar. 2, Apr. 13, Apr. 27; gen. epis., Apr. 13; gen. confer., Apr. 13; address, Hyde, Apr. 27; disc., Pratt, Apr. 27; address, Kimball, Apr. 27; disc., Taylor, May 11; Brigham, May 11; Smith, May 11; Grant, June 8; Brigham, July 27; Grant, July 27; Brigham, Aug. 3; Kimball, Aug. 17; epis. pres., Sept. 14; disc., Kimball, Sept. 14; a Mormon leader (from Sem. Wy. Jour., Tex.), Sept. 21; disc., Grant, Sept. 21; epis. against litigation, Sept. 21; remarks, Grant, Sept. 28; disc., Kimball, Sept. 28; Hyde, Oct. 5, Oct. 19; Kimball, Oct. 19; Benson, Oct. 19; Smith, Oct. 26; Pratt, Oct. 26; Brigham, Oct. 26; Hyde, Nov. 9; Grant. Nov. 2; Kimball, Nov. 23; Pratt, Nov. 30; Grant, Dec. 7; Kimball, Dec. 14; Pratt, Dec. 21; local recog. of Morm. (from Democracy), Dec. 21; disc., Pratt, Dec. 28; 1855, Grant, Jan. 25; testimony, Kimball, Jan. 25; disc., Brigham, Feb. 8; rept of 27 quor., Jan. 11; disc. on prophecies, Pratt, Feb. 22; Morm. worldliness, etc., Harrison; address, Brigham, Mar. 1; belief in superiority, Hyde, Mar. 14; sermon, Woodruff, Mar. 21; Hyde, Mar. 28; Smith, Apr. 4; testimony, faith, and confidence; gen. confer., Apr. 11; sermon, Grant, Apr. 11; gen. epist., Apr. 25; disc., Brigham, Apr. 25, May 9; remarks, Pratt, May 2; elders' corresp., May 16; disc., Pratt, May 16; on inspection, Brigham, May 23; elders' corresp., May 23, May 30; remarks, Brigham, June 6; disc., Brigham, June 20; the word of wisdom (in Doctrines and Covenants), June 27; sermon Smith, July 11; Morm., July 18; disc., Brigham, July 18; lecture, Grant, July 25; disc. Brigham, Aug. 1; Smith, Aug. 22; Benson, Aug. 22; Smith, Aug. 29; comments (N. Y. Papers), Sept. 12; remarks, Benson, Sept. 12; disc., Pratt, Sept. 12; remarks, Pratt, Sept. 19; disc., Brigham, Sept. 26; Smith, Oct. 10; gen. confer., Oct. 10; disc., Oct. 10; bowery meeting, Oct. 17; confer., Oct. 17, 24; tabernacle meeting, Oct. 24, 31; gen. epis., Oct. 31; sermon, Brigham, Oct. 31; to the truth-loving, Nov. 7; disc., Nov. 7; remarks, Grant, Nov. 7; tabernacle meeting, Nov. 7; remarks, Kimball, Nov. 7; sermon, Brigham, Nov. 21; disc., Kimball, Dec. 4; Pratt, Dec. 12, 19; Lyman, Dee. 19, 26; 1856, disc., Lyman, Jan. 2; Pratt, Jan. 30; Kimball, Feb. 6; Brigham, Feb. 6; Grant, Feb. 6; Lyman, Feb. 20; Brigham, Feb. 27; remarks, Kimball, Mar. 5; Brigham, Mar. 5, 12; cpis. to high priest's quorum, Mar. 12; disc., Kimball, Mar. 12; remarks, Grant, Mar. 12; fair weather disc., Mar. 12; disc., Wells, Mar. 19; Kimball, Mar. 19; Brigham, Mar. 26; Vernon, Mar. 26; remarks, Brigham, Mar. 26; disc., Grant, Apr. 2; Brigham, Apr. 2; Kimball, Apr. 2; gen. confer., Apr. 9; disc., Kimball, Apr. 9; sacrifice, Apr. 9; disc., Smith, Apr. 16; obedience, Apr. 23; disc., Pratt, Apr. 23; Brigham, Apr. 30; Pratt, May 14; the world and the saints May 28; remarks Brigham June 18 disc., Brigham, June 25; counsel, July 9; obedience, July 16; disc., Pratt, July 16; Kimball, Aug 20; sermon Brigham Aug. 27; confer. at Kayville. Sept. 24; disc., Pratt, Sept. 24; sermon, Brigham, Sept. 27; disc., Grant, Sept. 27; disc., (cont.)
They might worship the devil if they were citizens and discharged their duties as citizens. But I found that in a military way, in a political way, and in a judicial way they controlled matters; and nearly all of them
(18cont.) Brigham, Oct. 1; meetings, Oct. 1; disc., Kimball, Oct. 1; Brigham, Oct. 1; remarks, Grant, Oct. 1; confer., Oct. 8; remarks, Kimball, Oct. 8; Brigham, Oct. 8, 15; disc., Richards, Oct. 15; confer., Oct. 15; remarks, Spencer, Oct. 15; condition of saints, Oct. 22; remarks, Kimball, Nov. 5; disc., Grant, Nov. 5; special confer., Nov. 5; quart. confer., Nov. 12; remarks, Nov. 12; disc., Brigham, Nov. 12; Grant, Nov. 12; appointments, Nov. 12; disc., Grant, :Nov. 19; Kimball, Nov. 19; remarks, Brigham, Nov. 19; Young (Jos. A.), Nov. 19; Woodruff, Nov. 28; Brigham, Nov. 26; Kimball, Nov. 26; address, Pratt, Dec. 1; remarks, Brigham, Dec. 10; gen. epist., Dec. 10; disc., Pratt. Dec. 24; high priest's meeting, Dec. 31; sermon, Kimball, Dee. 31; remarks, Woodruff, Dec. 31; 1857, disc., Kimball, Jan. 7: remarks, Grant, Jan. 7; disc., Snow, Jan. 14; Richards, Jan. 21; Kimball, Jan. 21; Snow, Jan. 28; remarks, Woodruff, Feb. 4; toleration, Feb. 4; remarks, Grant, Feb. 4; morals, Feb. 11; disc., Brigham, Feb. 11; Kimball, Feb. 11; Cummings, Feb. 18; Brigham, Feb. 18; remarks, Kimball, Feb. 25; Hyde, Mar. 4; disc., Richards, Mar. 4; Woodruff, Mar. 4; remarks, Wells, Mar. 4; disc., Brigham, Mar. 11; Kimball, Mar. 11; Snow, Mar. 11; remarks, Wells, Mar. 11; disc., Brigham, Mar. 18; Young (Jos.), Mar. 18; Brigham, Mar. 25; Kimball, Mar. 25; Grant, Mar. 25; remarks, McAllister, Mar. 25; Kimball, Apr. 1; Richards, Apr. 1; disc. Woodruff, Apr. 1; sermon, Brigham, Apr. 8; remarks, Burton, Apr. 8; gen. confer., Apr. 15; remarks, Wells, Apr. 15; Stout, Apr. 15; Wells, Apr. 15; disc., Kimball, Apr. 2-2; Brigham, Apr. 22, 29; remarks, Herriman, Apr. 29; Wheelock, Apr. 29; remarks, Snow, May 6; Brigham, May 6; Woodruff, May 13; disc., Brigham, May 13; disc., May 20; the bible, May 20; remarks, Brigham, May 20; Ferguson, May 29; Fullmer, May 20; Davis, May 20; McKnight, May 20; Bassett, May, 27; disc., Gates, May 27; remarks, Woodruff, May 27; disc., Woolley, June 3; Mills, June 3; remarks, Brigham, June 10; Smith, June 10; Kimball, June 10; disc., Kimball, June 17; remarks, Brigham, June 17, 24; Rich, June 24; Brigham, June 24; Hyde, June 24; Lyman, June 24; disc., Kimball, June 24; Chislett, July 8; remarks, Brigham, July 8; Cummings, July 8; Brigham, July 15; Kimball, July 15; Carn, July 15; Lyman, July 22; Ellsworth, July 22; Brigham, July 22; disc., Lyman, July 29; pol. move. against Utah, July 29; remarks, Brigham, Aug. 5; Smoot, Aug. 5; Smith, Aug. 5; disc., Hyde, Aug. 5; Smith, Aug. 12; Kimball, Aug. 12; Smith (E.), Aug. 12; remarks, Brigham, Aug. 12; Kimball, Aug. 12; Taylor, Aug. 19; Brigham, Aug. 19; Kimball, Aug. 26; Brigham, Aug. 26; disc., Hyde, Aug. 26; Taylor, Sept. 2; remarks, Brigham, Sept. 9; Stewart, Sept. 9; disc., Kimball, Sept. 9, 16; Taylor, Sept. 16, 23; remarks, Smith, Sept. 23; Brigham, Sept. 23; Kimball, Sept. 30; Brigham, Sept. 30; disc., Taylor, Sept. 30; remarks, Woodruff, Oct. 7; disc., Kimball, Oct. 7; sem. ann. confer., Oct. 14; remarks, Brigham, Oct. 14; Spencer, Oct. 14; Snow, Oct. 14; disc., Hyde, Oct. 14; Kimball, Oct. 14; Snow, Oct. 21; sermon, Lyman, Oct. 21; remarks, Spencer, Oct. 21; remarks, Brigham, Oct. 21; Rich, Oct. 21; Young, Oct. 21; Snow, Oct. 21; Brigham, Oct. 28; by bishops and elders, Oct. 28; Brigham, Nov. 11, 25, Dec. 2, 9, 30; 1858, confer., Apr. 14; 1859, Mar. 9, Apr. 13, Oct. 12, Dec. 28; disc., 1858, Jan. 27, Feb. 17, Apr. 14, July 14, 28; 1859, May 25, June 1, 8, 15, July 6, Aug. 10, 17, Nov. 10, 23, 30; 1860, remarks, Brigham, Mar. 14, Apr. 4, 25, May 2, 16, 30, June 6, 27, July 18, 25, Aug. 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, Sept. 5; 1864, June 15; 1865, Jan. 4; 1866, Mar. 15; 1867, Feb. 3; 1868, Jan. 15; 1869, Jan. 20, Feb. 2, Dec. 10; 1870, Mar. 30; 1871, Apr. 19; 1879, Feb. 12; confer., 1860, Feb. 8, Apr. 11, Oct. 10; 1861, Apr. 10, Oct. 23; 1862, Apr. 9, 16, 29, Oct. 15; 1863, Apr. 15, 22; 1864, Apr. 13, May 25, Oct. 12, Dec. 14; 1865, Apr. 12, Oct. 12; 1866, Mar. 8, Apr. 12, Oct. 10; 1867, Apr. 10, Oct. 9; 1868, Apr. 8, 15, Oct. 14; (cont.)
are aliens. I found that I had got out of the United States and come to Utah. I have never got over that feeling yet, and I think I will get out of Utah and back into the United States again."
(18cont.) 1869, Apr. 14, July 7, Oct. 13; 1870, Apr. 13, May 11, Oct. 12, Nov. 2; 1871, Apr. 12, May 24, Oct. 11; 1872, Apr. 10, 17, 24, May 1, Aug. 28, Oct. 9, 16; 1873, Apr. 9, 16, May 7, Aug. 13, Oct. 8; 1874, Apr. 8, May 13, Oct. 14; 1875, Mar. 3, Apr. 14, 21, Oct. 13; 1876, Apr. 12, Oct. 11; 1877, May 16, June 6, 13, Oct. 10; 1878, Mar. 9, Apr. 10, Oct. 9, 16; 1879, Apr. 9, 16; Oct. 15; 1884, Apr. 7; high council, 1877, Oct. 24; meetings of priesthood, 1877, Oct. 10, Dec. 5; 1878, Feb. 6; 1879, Mar. 12; epist., 1879, Apr. 2; elders' disc., 1872, Jan. 24; 1873, Jan. 22, Apr. 16; 1874, Jan. 21, Apr. 22, May 6, 27; 1876, May 3, Oct. 11; 1877, May 16, 23; 1878, Feb. 13; hist. of Morm. (from St Louis Weekly Union), Dec. 27, 1851; miscel. (from St Louis Republican), S. F. Herald, Sept. 25, 1851.
For sermons and discourses, see also Millennial Star, passim; address, Kimball, Young's Journal of Discourses, ii. 354-7; sermons, Ferris, Utah and the Mormons, 217-32, 302-3; sermon, Brigham, Salem (Or.) Statesman, Feb. 5, 1856; repts of confer., among others, Frontier Guardian, 1851, June 13, Oct. 31, Nov. 28; gen. epist., in Id., Nov. 14; various sermons, Young's Jour. of Disc., ii. passim; disc., Pratt, Ward's Husband in Utah, 79-103; sermons, Brigham, Sac. Union, 1855, Oct. 25, Dec. 13; 1857, June 16; sermons by Brigham and Kimball, et al., S. F. Alta, 1854, May 16; 1S55, Apr. 6, May 1; 1857, Jan. 12, June 4, Oct. 14; S. F. Bulletin, 1857, May 2; 1866, Apr. 18; lecture, Hyde, S. F. Herald, 1857, Apr. 14; rites and ceremonies, Ferris, Utah and the Mormons, 311-17; Gunnison's Mormons, 37-8; Remy's Journey to G. S. L. City, ii. 4-82; Derby, Overland Route, 30-2; Rae's Westward by Rail, 123-4; Beadle's Life in Utah, 255-9; Rusling's Across America, 166-9; Life among the Mormons, 173-9; Boller's Among the Indians, 401-3; Bowles' Our New West, 242-7; Stenhouse, Tell It All, 251, 387-9; Ward's Husband in Utah, 204-8; Schiel, Reise dutch Felsengeb, 103-24; Smith's Rise, Progress and Travels, 64-5; Utah Scraps, 5, 16; Burton's City of Saints, 365-75. On faith and doctrines, see Smith, Doc. and Cov., passim; S. F. Gol. Era, Dec. 1, 1867: Des. News, Sept. 14, 1864; Mackay's The Morm., 51-4; Ferris, Utah and Morm., 201-16; Gunnison's Morm., 39-63; Frontier Guardian, Feb. 20, 1850; Busch, Morm., 72-105; De Rupert's Cal. and Morm., 138-46; Times and Seasons, vi. 971; Tucker's Morm., 174-9; S. L C. Contributor, ii. 192-324; church gov., Tullidge, Hist. S. L. City, 57-8; Todd's Sunset Land, 185-93; S. L. Direc., 1869, 58; Head, in Overland Monthly, v. 275-7; Utah Seraps, 8-9; Mackay's Morm., 298-305; Ferris, Utah and Morm., 171-7; Stausbury's Expior. Exp., 135-9; Richards' Narr., MS., 42; Smith's Rise, Prog., etc., 17-18, 27-8; Green's Morm., 150-66, 308-19; Hyde's Worm., 18, 25, 101-2, 188-9; The Morm. Proph., 120-1, 114-19; Beadle's Life in Utah, 381-9; Remy's Journey to G. S. L. City, ii. 229-34; Young's Wife No. 19, 577; Gunnison's Morm., 23-5, 57-61, 78-9; Sac. Union, June 26, 1857; theory of creation, Stenhouse's R. M. Saints, 485-94; order of Enoch, Id., 495-503; law of adoption, Id., 503-6; book of Abraham, Id., 507-20; res. of infants, 483-4; Washington bap. by prox., Id., 475-82; Hyde expelled, Id., 640; negro Mormons, S. F. Bulletin, Nov. 14, 1884; pub. discuss., Pratt, Ser. of Pamph., no. 10, 1-46, no. 11, 1-46; Taylor's Govt of God, passim; Morm. pro and con, Chandless' Visit to S. Lake, 156; Ward's Husband in Utah, 140-283; Gunnison's Morm., 35, 164; Salem (Or.) Statesman, Dec. 5, 1854; S. F. Herald, 1854, Jan. 26, Aug. 23, Sept. 27; Alta, 1851, July 24, Aug. 6, 7; 1852, Dec. 21; 1853, Nov. 26; 1854, June 25, 26; 1856, May 10, 15, June 13, Sept. 15, Dec. 17; 1858, Jan. 22; Cal. Chris. Advoc., Apr. 6, 1865; Bulletin, 1856, Aug. 21; 1877, Sept. 8; Sac. Union, 1855, Mar. 16, July 17, Dec. 13; 1856, June 14; Morm. at Home, 65, 122-3, 142-5, 220-1; N. Y. Jour. of Com., in Pan. Star and Her., (cont.)
Thus, notwithstanding the iniquities of the saints, together with their impudence and arrogance, as charged upon them by their enemies, the impossibility of others living with them as members of one community, of
(18cont.) Feb. 18, 1869; Smucker's Hist. Morm., 323-99; Young's Wife No. 19, 333-40; Olshausen, Morm., 170-5; Jonveaux, L'Amerique, 235-6, 244-8; Mackay's The Morm., 271-326; Ferris, Utah and Morm., 171-7; Young's Resurrection, 11; Smet's Western Missions, 390-7; 32 Cong. 1st Sess., H. Ex. Dec., 19-20; Frontier Guardian, 1850, Feb. 6, 20, Mar. 6, 20, June 12, July 10, Sept. 4, Oct. 30, Dec. 25; 1851, Jan. 8, Mar. 21, Apr. 18, May 16, 30, June 13, 27, July 25, Aug. 8, Sept. 5, Oct. 31, Dec. 12, 26; 1852, Jan. 9, 23, Feb. 6, 20; Ward's Husband in Utah, 283-9; Hyde's Morm., 50, 179-81, 306-30; Burton's City of Saints, 437-97; Hickman's Dest. Angel, 10-15.
In addition to these authorities, it is safe to assert that every gentile paper of importance in the U.S. has at some time extracted from the Salt Lake papers, and commented freely thereon. During the existence of the Kanes-ville (Iowa) Frontier Guardian, 1849-52, nearly every issue contained articles explanatory of the dogmas of the church, a few of which I have referred to. The Millennial Star, although devoted more especially to missionary effort abroad, has always copied freely from home publications. I append a few additional authorities, as follows: On religion, S. F. Alta, Jan. 19, 1860; Bulletin, June 19, 1871; S. L. Rev., Sept. 22, 1871; Gaz. Utah, 1874; S. L. Trib., Jan. 29, 1876, May 19, 1877; Juv. Inst., xv.; doc., Pratt, Key to Scien. Theol., passim; Bonwick, Morm. and Silv. Mines, 34-61; S. L. Trib., Jan. 25, 1872, Mar. 28, 1874; S. L. C. Contributor, ii. 39, 70, 135; bible and book of Morm., S. L. Trib., May 16, 1874; rev., Eureka Sent., Apr. 16, 1875; Silv. City Avalan., Mar. 31, 1876; S. L. Trib., June 2, Oct. 20, 1877; Sept. 24, Oct. 26, 1879; Silv. Reef Miner, June 11, 1879; Stenhouse, Englishwoman in Utah, 34, 74; S. F. Stock Rept, Jan. l, 1880; church, Sac. Union, Feb. 4, Sept. 1, 1860; S. F. Bulletin, Dec. 22, 1868, Oct. 10, 1870; Chronicle, Oct. 7, 1883; priesthood, Sac. Union, Oct. 20, 1860; S. L. Trib., in Unionville Silv. State, Mar. 23, 1872; Eureka Sent., Apr. 15, 1873; S. F. Alta, Apr. 14, 1873; S. L. Trib., July 4, 1874, July 10, 1875; Gold Hill News, Dec. 14, 1875; Smith's Mystery and Crime, 16-23, 27-30; Circulars of First Presid., 1877; Pratt's prophecy, Austin, Reese Riv. Rev., Apr. 23, 1880; worship and preachers, Burton, City of Saints, 316; sermons, Young, 1860; Burton, City of Saints, 320; Sac. Union, May 30, Oct. 9; Morm. Expos., i. no 1; S. F. Call, May 11, 1865; Bulletin, Oct. 17, 1867; Alta, July 19, 1860; S. L. Rev., Dec. 7, 1871; Hubner's Round the World, 109; The Resurr., S. L. City, 1875; Prescott Miner, Aug. 17, 1877; by elders, S. L. Tel., June 15, 1869; Corinne Reptr., in Elko Indpt, Aug. 21, 1869; Greenwood's New Life, 144-7; Taylor's Summer Savory, 21-5; S. L. Herald, 1878, Sept. 2, 17, 24, Oct. 1, 22, 29, Nov. 5, 12, 19; Marshall's Through Amer., 198-205; Silver Reef Min., June 18, 1879; character of, Sala's Amer. Revis., 296; Richardson's Beyond Miss., 356-7; Sac. Union, Feb. 28, 1861; relig. freedom, Cannon, Rev. of Decis. of Supm. Ct; confer., S. F. Alta, 1869, Oct. 9; 1872, Apr. 29; Bulletin, 1870, Apr. 12; 1871, Oct. 6, 7; 1872, Apr. 9, 29; 1873, Apr. 7, 9; 1874, Oct. 7; 1876, Nov. 3; 1877, Apr. 11, Oct. 8; 1879, Apr. 9; 1883, Oct. 6, 15; Call, 1864, Apr. 7; 1871, Apr. 11; 1872, Apr. 9; 1873, Apr. 7; Chronicle, 1883, Oct. 6; Post, 1875, Apr. 12; 1877, Apr. 6; Times, 1868, Apr. 21; Sac. Union, 1860, Oct. 20; Carson Union, Apr. 12, 1873; Jackson (Amador) Ledger, Dec. 29, 1877; S. L. Herald, 1878, Oct. 8; 1879, Apr. 9, 12, 22, May 20, June 10, 24, Oct. 7; 1880, Jan. 6; Telegraph, 1869, Apr. 6, 7, 8, 9; 1870, May 7, 8, 9; Tribune, 1873, May 10; 1874, Apr. 4; 1875, Apr. 17, Aug. 6, Oct. 9, 10, 12; 1876, Apr. 8-15, Oct. 7; 1877, May 19, 26, Oct. 13; 1878, Apr. 13, July 13, Oct. 12; 1879, Apr. 5, 8, Oct. 7; 1880, Apr. 10, Sept. 23; Townsend's Morm. Trials, 44; Beadle's Life in Utah, 278:-89; Robinson's Sinners and Saints; bishops, Des. News, Nov. 29, 185l; book of (cont.)
one commonwealth, is the real difficultynot their religion, their so-called blasphemies, their pretended revelations and miracles, their opposition bible, their latter-day dispensations, and the rest; nor yet their crimes and misdemeanors, their robberies and murders; nor even yet their secret ceremonies, their endowments, Danite bands, blood atonement, and the rest. The copy or counterpart of very many of these, in greater or smaller degree, is, or has been, practised by the gentiles; or if not, few care enough for any of them to go to war on their account. The trouble is this, and this will continue to be the trouble, in Utah or elsewhere in the United States, and that whether polygamy stands or fallsthe saints are too exclusive, industrially and politically, for their neighbors.
The theory of government of this republic is numerical equality, each man and each hundred men being equal to every other man or every other hundred men as industrial and political factors. In this case, however, it is not so, and it never can be so. Spiritual manifestations and spiritual wives have nothing to do with it. A hundred or a thousand Mormons are a unit, socially, politically, and commercially, in a community organized theoretically upon the basis of only one man to the unit. And until the principles of the United States republic are remodelled, Mormons and gentiles cannot live together in peace and amity. It is folly for gentiles to enter a Mormon
(18cont.) Abraham, Smith's Pearl of Gt Price, 25-30; Mil. Star, xv. 549-50, passim. For additional sermons on theology, see Mil. Star, i. passim, vi. 33-8, 49-56, 65-70, 97-9, viii. 35-8; Times and Seasons, ii., iii., iv., and v. passim, vi. 808-9, 823-5, 957-8, 1001-5; anal. of, Beadle's Life in Utah, 311-31; Townsend's Morm. Trials, 40; on creed and faith, Times and Seasons, i. 68-70, iii. 863-5, 931-3; Spencer's Letters, etc., 1-252; Young's Wife No. 19, 58-60; Bennett's Hist. of Saints, 103-32, 302-7, 340-1; Eden Rev., Apr. 1854, 352; Pratt, Inter. Acct, 27-36; Id., Series of Pamph., nos 2-6; Tucker's Morm., 139-52; Vetromile, A Tour, 70-1; Ferris' Utah and Morm., 211-13, 299-300; Sten-house's Tell It All, 295-300; Reynolds' Bk of Abraham, 15; Grass Valley, Foothill Tidings, July 5, 1879; Pratt, in Des. News, Aug. 21, 1852; Smith, in Times and Seasons, iii. 709; Id., Pearl of Gt Price, 63; Smucker's Morm., 61-6; Pratt's Persecutions, iii.-v.; Id., Voice of Warn., passim; Dixon, White Conquest, 182-8, 193-7, 223-8; preachers and preaching, Greeley's Overland Jour., 218-22; Seventies, Mil. Star, xxxvi. 369-72; church charter, S. F. Bulletin, Nov. 26, 1858; sincerity of Morm., S. F. Alta, Mar. 30, 1858.
community and think to rule, or to have any part in the government as at present existing, and following the line of law and order. This is why the people of Missouri and Illinois drove them outnot because of their religion or immorality, for their religion was nothing to the gentiles, and their morals were as good or better than those of their neighbors. It may as well be understood and agreed upon that, in the United States or out of the United States, the Mormons are, and ever will be, a people self-contained and apart.
Thus the matter continues to be discussed by the world at large, as a question of theology or morality, and not of active political and judicial control, or of the domination of a politico-religions organization, with aspirations and purposes diverse from those of the American people generally.
The theory and assumption of the Mormon church as a politico-religious organization is that the church is a government of God, and not responsible to any other government on earth conflicting with it, if not indeed bound from necessity to overturn and supplant all civil governments. This assumption lies at the very foundation of the Mormon creed; and from this point, in practical operation as well as in theory, there is a divergence between that organization and the United States government. Grant that any man believes what the Mormons believe, say their enemies, and where will his allegiance restwith the government of the United States, or with this politico-religious organization which ought to and will, as they imagine, supplant all other governments? Many of them are alien born, and, from the treatment they receive on their arrival, learn to distrust the government of the United States, and to cling all the closer to the institutions of their sect.
"It is not consistent that the people of God," says. Orson Pratt, "should organize or be subject to man-made governments. If it were so, they could never
be perfected. There can be but one perfect government,that organized by God, a government by apostles, prophets, priests, teachers, and evangelists; the order of the original church of all churches acknowledged by God."
Early in this narrative we saw plainly, and remarked upon it as we proceeded, that it has been chiefly the political character and aspirations of the church that have brought it into all its difficulties everywherein Ohio, in Missouri, in Illinois. And its thirty years of isolation and independence in Utah, during which time it came in contact with the American people or with the government only in a limited degree, intensified its desire for control. The only way the Mormons can live in peace with gentile neighbors is for them to follow the example of their brethren, the Josephitesleave politics and government out of their ethics, and not combine for the purpose of controlling counties, states, or territories. But this strikes at the very root of their religion, which has already given them for an inheritance all counties and countries and peoples throughout the world, as they modestly claim.
There is here much more than the religious unity of ancient Israel. As a cooperative association, Mormonism has not its equal in the history of the world. In every conceivable relation, position, interest, and idea; in every sentiment of hope and fear, of joy and sorrowthere is mutual assistance and sympathy. It enters into all affairs, whether for time or eternity; there is an absolute unity in religion, government, and society, and to the fullest extent short of communism, internal assistance in agriculture, commerce, and manufactures. If a foreign convert wishes to come to America, he is helped hither; if he wants land, farming implements, seed, stock, he is helped to them; trade and manufactures are largely cooperative. And this bond of strength, whether it be called the holiness of saints or
the bigotry of fanatics, causes them to be feared and hated by their neighbors.
Polygamy, as a tenet of the Mormon church, is based upon scripture example, and' if this is unlawful, it says, all is unlawful. Marriage is ordained of God, and essential to salvation. Christian sects hold up the patriarchs as examples in their sacred instruction, and yet condemn in these personages a practice which Christ nowhere condemns. While in polygamy, God blessed them and their polygamous seed, saying never a word about their plural wives. Polygamy was common in Asia at the time of the apostles; yet none of them preached against it, nor does John the revelator mention it, writing to the seven churches. In the days of Justin Martyr, the Jews practised polygamy. It is true that the emperor Theodosius, about A. D. 393, promulgated a law against polygamy, but it was repealed sixty years after by Valentinian. Nevertheless, as the civilized world, particularly Christian sects, regarded the practice with abhorrence, the prophet Joseph inquired of the Lord as to what he should do. And the Lord answered, commanding him to restore all things, the practice of polygamy among the rest. The revelation on this subject is given entire in note 19 of this chapter. The inferior order of wifehood, known in the sacred scriptures as concubinage, is not recognized in the Mormon church. By the marriage covenant, all are made wives, and all children are legitimate.
Celestial marriage and the plural-wife system, as incorporated parts of the Mormon religion, are essential to the fulness of exaltation in the eternal world. The space around us, it declares, is inhabited by spirits, thousands of years old, awaiting tabernacles in the flesh, which can be legitimately furnished them only by marriage and procreation; and bodies cannot be obtained for these spirits fast enough unless men have more wives than one. It is the will and glory of God
that these spirits have bodies as speedily as possible, that they become saints on earth and in his kingdom, those who keep this commandment thus to multiply being as gods; otherwise these spirits will take refuge in the bodies of unbelievers, and so sink to perdition.
But civilization has pronounced polygamy a curse and a crime, a retrogression, an offence against society and against morality, a beastly abomination, immoral, incestuous, degrading, a relic of barbarism, a sin, a shame, a vice, and as such has discarded it and passed laws against it. And the issue between polygamy and monogamy is one purely for civilization to determine; christianity has not a foot of ground to stand upon in the matter.
Culture cares nothing for religion; it is what a man does, not what he believes, that affects progress. It will not do to break the law in the name of religion. Suppose a man's religion authorizes him to commit murder: does that make it right? Civilization seeks the highest morality; and the highest morality, it says, is not that of the bible, of the book of Mormon, or of any other so-called holy book. The highest morality is based on nature, and by a study of nature's laws men may find it. Long before Christ, civilization awoke to the evils of this custom, which is not in accord with its morality. The religious reformer, Buddha, who died 470 years before Christ was born, and whose followers now number about one third of the whole human race, preached against polygamy. When Greece and Rome were the foremost nations of the world, they did not practise polygamy, nor has ever the highest civilization entertained it. Polygamy is to monogamy as Greece to China, or as England to India.
All very religious people, as well as science fanatics, are partially insane. This insanity may be passive and harmless, or aggressive and hurtful. We have innumerable instances of both kinds in the history of the Christian church. But as the world
progresses, religion becomes less dogmatic, and the insanity assumes more and more the milder form. Thus it is with the Mormons as with others; they would not feel justified in doing now some things which were done by their predecessors, any more than gentile Christians would wish to burn heretics, or slaughter millions in the name of the redeemer; or any more than they would accept Joseph Smith as a prophet from God, or believe in his metal book of Mormon, or his pretended revelations.
But admitting man's obligation to follow the precepts and example of the bible, which, if done literally, would lead him into all manner of contrarieties and absurdities, even as it does the Mormons to-day, the scriptural argument in support of polygamy does not go for much. Among the half-savage Israelites the custom obtained, but as they grew more civilized, it died out. The first apostles had none of them two wives, and St Paul maintained that it was best not to have any; the spirit of the new testament is all against plurality of wives, and, though it nowhere in so many words condemns the system, the books of Mormon and doctrine and covenants do.
Thus we see that holy books are contradictory and unreliable, not being consistent in themselves, or producing consistent followers. Codes of morality depending on the divine will are without foundation: are, indeed, not codes of morality, which to be genuine must be based on nature as the law-giver and punisher; for otherwise all men to whom the will of God has not been revealed, or who do not believe in any god or revelation, would be without any knowledge of right and wrong, or any standard of morality.
Innate perceptions, supernatural intuitions, or a conscience divinely given, instead of one evolved from the ever-increasing accumulation of human experiences, are not safe guides to right conduct, as the doctrines and doings of the Mormons clearly show. By the result of an act, not by supernatural revelation, we know
whether it is good or bad; and here, the result being bad, the act is wrong, immoral.
The result is bad because by reason of the act civilization takes a step backward, woman is degraded, and the progress of the race hampered. The mono-gamic is the highest type of family, and the highest type of society, yet evolved. Polygamy is better than promiscuity or polyandry, but it is not equal to monogamy. Polygamy springs from the desire to extend the sexual gratification at the expense of the better sense of the better part of the world's inhabitants. It is but a few removes from the old way among savages, where women were property, and bought by husbands to be used as slaves. To monogamy is due the fullest development of the emotions, of the higher sentiments, motherly tenderness, fatherly care, and the dutiful respect and obedience on the part of children. It is here that the passion of love assumes its most refined form; it is here that we find in family, social, and political relations, the greatest good to the greatest number.
For if we degrade woman, we degrade her children, her husband, and the whole community. Throughout all ages the position of woman has fixed the advancement of the nation in the scale of refinement and intelligence. Polygamy makes of woman, not the equal and companion of man, but his subordinate, if not indeed his serf or slave. The charm of her influence is gone; the family circle becomes incongruous and less cohesive; and there is an absence of those firm relations, filial and paternal, which, continued through successive generations, engender the highest type of society yet known. Make of American women Circassian slaves, and you will make of American men Turks.
The nations having the highest and best literature, laws, commerce, and religion, the nations that are enlightening the world with their books, telegraphs, steamboats, and railroads, are monogamic. Polygamy
encourages, if it does not necessitate, a domestic despotism, which, united with a religious and political despotism, constitutes one of the worst possible of social evils. It adds to the Mormons numbers and strength, banding them in a peculiar brotherhood, politically and socially.
The system is not an equitable one. There are born a tolerably even number of males and females, so that under this arrangement, where one man had a dozen wives, a dozen or so men would have none. Then, as to the relationships of the individual members, injustice is wrought, some of them being but little better than those existing among animals. There is an instinct in every woman which tells her that to be second or third is to be no wife at all. Neglect must exist. One man cannot properly care for so many women and children. Even if he is wealthy, he has not the time. Differences of origin and interests breed jealousies, foster selfishness, and are injurious to character. Then, when the reproductive age has passed, there is nothing left for the wife but a lonely and miserable old age.
Further than this, if reproduction be the chief incentive to the plural-wife system among the Mormons, and if it be true, as is often asserted, that as a rule the sexes are born numerically equal, then the system will in the end defeat its own object, for more children will be born and cared for where there is one man for every woman than where some women have to go without a husband, or with a fraction of one. It might pertinently be asked, in this connection, what is the benefit in multiplying the population? Are there not enough people already in the world? and is it not better to improve the stock than unduly to multiply it? This prevention is practised often for improper motives and by injurious methods; but millions do it because they think they cannot afford to raise children, and have no right to bring them into existence.
True, the evils of the practice are not so great under a theocratic and patriarchal system like that of the Mormons, as it would be if allowed to run riot round the world, giving libertines the widest opportunity to deceive and then desert women; in which case there would be no need of prostitution to satisfy men's passions, as the great barriers between the virtuous and the lewd would be for the most part broken down. Among the Mormons, this is prevented by strong religious feeling, and by the patriarchal influence of the leaders. But the majority of mankind in the great outside world are not controlled by religion or reasonthey simply drift.
Whether for this reason or some other reason, Mormons are not loyal to the government, and the issue is between polygamic theocracy and American republicanism. Nor are the fears of the friends of the latter wholly groundless; for, as one writer said of it, "the Mormon church is one of the best organized systems in the world. The cunning of the devil and the sophistry of error are so mingled with truth as to make it one of the most powerful agencies to delude the ignorant." The truth is, the theocratic organization has already become absolute. Opposition stimulates propagandism, and persecution brings only defiance of federal authority and the moral sense of the nation. Legislation is defeated at every turn. The history of Utah is the history of the Mormon priesthood in its attempt to subordinate the state to the church, and make the authority of the priesthood superior to that of the United States government.
So says civilization.
In answer, polygamy reiterates scriptural example and divine command, and repudiates civilization wherever it interferes with religion. Culture and progress, which set at defiance God's law, are of the devil. There is no retrogression in keeping the commands of the most high. God blessed Abraham, and
David, and Solomon; polygamy is no curse. And that cannot be a sin which God commands; that cannot be a vice which has for its accomplishment only the highest and holiest purposes of the almighty; that cannot be against morality which is practised only by the righteous, and for the pure and eternal welfare of the human race.19
19For a time, in so far as possible, the practice of polygamy in Illinois and Utah was kept secret by the missionaries in England and in Europe. Says Parley P. Pratt in Manchester, and in the Millennial Star of 1846, 'Such a doctrine is not held, known, or practised as a principle of the latter-day saints;' and John Taylor at the Boulogne discussion, in France, in July 1850, says, 'We are accused here of polygamy and actions the most indelicate, obscene, and disgusting, such as none but a corrupt heart could have conceived. these things are too outrageous to be believed.'
On the morning of Aug. 29, 1852, before a special conference in session at S. L. City, Orson Pratt preached on the subject of marriage, in which discourse he stated, 'It is well known, however, to the congregation before me, that the latter-day saints have embraced the doctrine of a plurality of wives as part of their religious faith.' In the evening, whilst the sacrament was being passed, Brigham addressed the audience, saying in the course of his remarks, 'Though that doctrine [polygamy] has not been preached by the elders, this people have believed in it for many years.' At the close of Brigham's address, the revelation of July 12, 1843, was read by Elder Thomas Bullock. The proceedings of this conferencc were published in full in all 8vo pamphlet of 48 pages, issued as an extra by the Deseret News, on Sept. 14, 1852, when the revelation first saw the light. It next appeared in the Millennial Star, and may now be found in the book of Doctrine and Covenants. Herewith I give the revelation entire.
Revelation given to Joseph Smith, at Nauvoo, July 12, 1843: 'Verily, thus saith the Lord unto you, my servant Joseph, that inasmuch as you have inquired of my hand to know and understand wherein I, the Lord, justified my servants Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, as also Moses, David, and Solomon, my servants, as touching the principle and doctrine of their having many wives and concubines: behold, and lo! I am the Lord thy God, and will answer thee as touching this matter; therefore, prepare thy heart to receive and obey the instructions which I am about to give unto you; for all those who have this law revealed unto them must obey the same; for behold! I reveal unto you a new and an everlasting covenant, and if ye abide not that covenant, then are ye damned; for no one can reject this covenant and be permitted to enter into my glory; for all who will have a blessing at my hands shall abide the law which was appointed for that blessing, and the conditions thereof, as were instituted from before the foundations of the world; and as pertaining to the new and everlasting covenant, it was instituted for the fulness of my glory; and he that receiveth a fulness thereof must and shall abide the law, or he shall be damned, saith the Lord God. And verily I say unto you, that the conditions of this law arc these: All covenants, contracts, bonds, obligations, oaths, vows, performances, connections, associations, or expectations that are not made and entered into and sealed by the holy spirit of promise, of him who is anointed, both as well for time and for all eternity, and that, too, most holy, by revelation and commandment, through the medium of mine anointed, whom I have appointed on the earth to hold this power (and I have appointed unto my servant Joseph to hold this power in the last days, and there is never but one on the earth at a time on whom this power and the keys of this priesthood are conferred), are of no efficacy, virtue, or force in and after the resurrection from the dead: for all contracts (cont.)
Whatever may be the blessings attending civilization, they are insignificant as compared with the blessings of religion, a life of faith and holiness, and the pure worship of God. Civilization with its one-wife or no-wife system breeds licentiousness, fosters prostitution,
(19cont.) that are not made unto this end have an end when men are dead. Behold mine house is a house of order, saith the Lord God, and not a house of confusion. Will I accept an offering, saith the Lord, that is not made in my name? Or will I receive at your hands that which I have not appointed? And will appoint unto you, saith the Lord, except it be by law, even as I and my father ordained unto you, before the world was? I am the Lord thy God, and I give unto you this commandment that no man shall come unto the father but by me, or by my word, which is my law, saith the Lord; and everything that is in the world, whether it be ordained of men, by thrones, or principalities, or powers, or things of name, whatsoever they may be that are not by me, or by my word, saith the Lord, shall be thrown down, and shall not remain after men are dead, neither in nor after the resurrection, saith the Lord your God; for whatsoever things remain are by me, and whatsoever things are not by me shall be shaken and destroyed. Therefore, if a man marry him a wife in the world, and he marry her not byrne, nor by my word, and he covenant with her so long as he is in the world, and she with him, their covenant and marriage are not of force when they are dead, and when they are out of the world; therefore, they are not bound by any law when they are out of the world; therefore, when they are out of the world, they neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are appointed angels in heaven, which angels are ministering servants, to minister for those who are worthy of a far more and an exceeding and an eternal weight of glory; for these angels did not abide my law, therefore they cannot be enlarged, but remain separately and singly, without exaltation, in their saved condition to all eternity, and from henceforth are not gods, but are angels of God forever and ever. And again, verily I say unto you, if a man marry a wife, and make a covenant with her for time and for all eternity, if that covenant is not by me or by my word, which is my law, and is not sealed by the holy spirit of promise, through him whom I have anointed and appointed unto this power, then it is not valid, neither of force when they are out of the world, because they are not joined by me, saith the Lord, neither by my word; when they are out of the world, it can not be received there because the angels and the gods are appointed there, by whom they cannot pass; they cannot, therefore, inherit my glory, for my house is a house of order, saith the Lord God. And again, verily I say unto you if a man marry a wife by my word, which is my law, and by the new and everlasting covenant, and it is sealed unto them by the holy spirit of promise, by him who is anointed, unto whom I have appointed this power and the keys of this priesthood, and it shall be said unto them, Ye shall come forth in the first resurrection; and if it be after the first resurrection, in the next resurrection; and shall inherit thrones, kingdoms, principalities, and powers, dominions, all heights and depths; then shall it be written in the Lamb's book of life, that he shall commit no murder whereby to shed innocent blood, and if lie abide in my covenant, and commit no murder whereby to shed innocent blood, it shall be done unto them in all things whatsoever my servant hath put upon them, in time and through all eternity; and shall be of full force when they are out of the world, and they shall pass by the angels and the gods which are set there, to their exaltation and glory in all things, as hath been sealed upon their heads, which glory shall be a fulness and a continuation of the seeds forever and ever. Then shall they be gods, because they have no end; therefore shall they be from everlasting to everlasting because they continue; then shall they be above all, because all things (cont.)
and brings much misery on the human race in this world, not to mention the world to come. The laws of God we know; civilization's laws we know not. Civilization has little to boast of in the
(19cont.) are subject unto them. Then shall they be gods, because they have all power, and the angels are subject unto them.
'Verily, verily, I say unto you, except ye abide my law ye cannot attain to this glory; for straight is the gate and narrow the way that leadeth unto the exaltation and continuation of the lives, and few there be that find it, because ye receive me not in the world, neither do ye know me. But if ye receive me in the world, then shall ye know me, and shall receive your exaltation, that where I am ye shall be also. This is eternal lives, to know the only wise and true God, and Jesus Christ whom he hath sent. I am he. Receive ye, therefore, my law. Broad is the gate and wide the way that leadeth to the deaths, and many there are that go in thereat, because they receive me not, neither do they abide in my law. Verily, verily, I say unto you, if a man marry a wife according to my word, and they are sealed by the holy spirit of promise, according to mine appointment, and he or she shall commit any sin or transgression of the new and everlasting covenant whatever, and all manner of blasphemies, and if they commit no murder wherein they shed innocent blood, yet they shall come forth in the first resurrection and enter into their exaltation; but they shall be destroyed in the flesh, and shall be delivered unto the buffetings of Satan, unto the day of redemption, saith the Lord God. The blasphemy against the holy ghost, which shall not be forgiven in the world nor out of the world, is in that ye commit murder wherein ye shed innocent blood, and assent unto my death, after ye have received my new and everlasting covenant, saith the Lord God; and he that abideth not this law can in no wise enter into my glory, but shall be damned, saith the Lord. I am the Lord thy God, and will give unto thee the law of my holy priesthood as was ordained by me and my Father before the world was. Abraham received all things whatsoever he received by revelation and commandment by my word, saith the Lord, and hath entered into his exaltation and sitteth upon his throne. Abraham received promises concerning his seed and of the fruit of his loinsfrom whose loins ye are, viz., my servant Josephwhich were to continue so long as they were in the world; and as touching Abraham and his seed out of the world, they should continue; both in the world and out of the world should they continue as innumerable as the stars, or if ye were to count the sand upon the seashore, ye could not number them. This promise is yours also, because ye are of Abraham, and the promise was made unto Abraham, and by this law are the continuation of the works of my father, wherein he glorifieth himself. Go ye, therefore, and do the works of Abraham; enter ye into my law, and ye shall be saved. But if ye enter not into my law, ye cannot receive the promise of my Father which he made unto Abraham. God commanded Abraham, and Sarah gave Hagar to Abraham to wife. And why did she do it? Because this was the law, and from Hagar sprang many people. This, therefore, was fulfilling, among other things, the promises. Was Abraham, therefore, under condemnation? Verily I say unto you, nay; for I, the Lord, commanded it. Abraham was commanded to offer his son Isaac; nevertheless it was written thou shalt not kill. Abraham, however, did not refuse, and it was accounted unto him for righteousness.
'Abraham received concubines, and they bare him children, and it was accounted unto him for righteousness, because they were given unto him and he abode in my law; as Isaac also, and Jacob, did none other things than that which they were commanded; and because they did none other things than that which they were commanded, they have entered into their exaltation, according to the promises, and sit upon thrones, and are not angels, but (cont.)
line of its moralities. It is true that monogamy was early enforced in Greece; but outside of marriage limits, there was gross indulgence in every form, which was as freely permitted and practised as among
(19cont.) are gods. David also received many wives and concubines, as also Solomon and Moses, my servants, as also many others of my servants, from the beginning of creation until this time, and in nothing did they sin, save in those things which they received not of me. David's wives and concubines were given unto him of me by the hand of Nathan, my servant, and others of the prophets who had the keys of this power; and in none of these things did he sin against me, save in the case of Uriah and his wife; and therefore he hath fallen from his exaltation and received his portion; and he shall not inherit them out of the world, for I gave them unto another, saith the Lord. I am the Lord thy God, and I gave unto thee, my servant Joseph, an appointment, and restore all things; ask what ye will, and it shall be given unto you, according to my word; and as ye have asked concerning adultery, verily, verily, I say unto you, if a man receiveth a wife in the new and everlasting covenant, and if she be with another man, and I have not appointed unto her by the holy anointing, she hath committed adultery, and shall be destroyed. If she be not in the new and everlasting covenant, and she be with another man, she has committed adultery; and if her husband be with another woman, and he was under a vow, he hath broken his vow and hath committed adultery; and if she hath not committed adultery, but is innocent, and hath not broken her vow, and she knoweth it, and I reveal it unto you, my servant Joseph, then shall you have power, by the power of my holy priesthood, to take her and give her unto him that hath not committed adultery, but hath been faithful, for he shall be made ruler over many; for I have conferred upon you the keys and power of the priesthood, wherein I restore all things and make known unto you all things in due time. And verily, verily, I say unto you, that whatsoever you seal on earth shall be sealed in heaven, and whatsoever you bind on earth, in my name and by my word, saith the Lord, it shall be eternally bound in the heavens; and whosesoever sins you remit on earth shall be remitted eternally in the heavens, and whosesoever sins you retain on earth shall be retained in heaven. And again, verily I say, whomsoever you bless, I will bless; and whomsoever you curse, I will curse, saith the Lord; for I the Lord am thy God. And again, verily I say unto you, my servant Joseph, that whatsoever you give on earth, and to whomsoever you give any one on earth, by my word and according to my law, it shall be visited with blessings, and not cursings, and with my power, saith the Lord, and shall be without condemnation on earth and in heaven; for I am the Lord thy God, and will be with thee even unto the end of the world, and through all eternity; for verily I seal upon you your exaltation and prepare a throne for you in the kingdom of my father, with Abraham, your father. Behold! I have seen your sacrifices, and will forgive all your sins; I have seen your sacrifices, in obedience to that which I have told you; go, therefore, and I make a way for your escape, as I accepted the offering of Abraham, of his son Isaac.
'Verily I say unto you, a commandment I give unto mine handmaid, Emma Smith, your wife, whom I have given unto you, that she stay herself and partake not of that which I commanded you to offer unto her; for I did it, saith the Lord, to prove you all, as I did Abraham, and that I might require an offering at your hand by covenant and sacrifice; and let my handmaid Emma Smith receive all those that have been given unto my servant Joseph, and who are virtuous and pure before me; and those who are not pure, and have said they were pure, shall be destroyed, saith the Lord God; for I am the Lord thy God, and ye shall obey my voice; and I give unto my servant Joseph that he shall be made ruler over many things, for he hath been faithful over a few things, and from henceforth I will strengthen him. (cont.)
the foremost nations of to-day. Plato even advocated plurality of wives, chiefly on patriotic grounds. In Rome, the one-wife system was more firmly established, though in the absence of marriage, chastity was little regarded. Marcus Aurelius, indeed, was eulogized by his biographer for bringing into his
(19cont.) And I command mine handmaid Emma Smith to abide and cleave unto my servant Joseph and to none else. But if she will not abide this commandment, she shall be destroyed, saith the Lord, for I am the Lord thy God, and will destroy her if she abide not in my law; but if she will not abide this commandment, then shall my servant Joseph do all things for her even as he hath said, and I will bless him and multiply him, and give unto him a hundred-fold in this world, of fathers and mothers, brothers and sisters, houses and lands, wives and children, and crowns of eternal lives in the eternal worlds. And again, verily I say, let mine handmaid forgive my servant Joseph his trespasses, and then shall she be forgiven her trespasses, wherein she has trespassed against me, and I, the Lord thy God, will bless her and multiply her, and make her heart rejoice. And again, I say, let not my servant Joseph put his property out of his hands, lest an enemy come and destroy himfor Satan seeketh to destroyfor I am the Lord thy God, and he is my servant; and behold! and lo I am with him, as I am with Abraham, thy father, even unto his exaltation and glory. Now as touching the law of the priesthood, there are many things pertaining thereunto. Verily, if a man be called of my Father, as was Aaron, by mine own voice, and by the voice of him that sent me, and I have endowed him with the keys of the power of this priesthood, if he do anything in my name, and according to my law, and by my word, he will not commit sin, and I will justify him. Let no one, therefore, set on my servant Joseph, for I will justify him; for he shall do the sacrifice which I require at his hands, for his transgressions, saith the Lord your God. And again, as pertaining to the law of the priesthood; if any man esouse a virgin, and desire to espouse another, and the first give her consent, if and he espouse the second, and they are virgins, and have vowed to on other man, then is he justified; he cannot commit adultery, for they are given unto him; for he cannot commit adultery with that that belonged unto him, and to none else; and if he have ten virgins given unto him by this law, he cannot commit adultery, for they belong to him and they are given unto him; therefore is he justified. But if one or either of the ten virgins after she is espoused shall be with another man, she has committed adultery and shall be destroyed; for they are given unto him to multiply and replenish the earth, according to my commandment and to fulill the promise which was given by my father before the foundation of the world, and for their exaltation in the eternal worlds, that they may bear the souls of men; for herein is the work of my father continued, that he may be glorified. And again, verily, verily, I say unto you, if any man have a wife who holds the keys of this power, and he teaches unto her the law of my priesthood as pertaining to these things, then shall she believe and administer unto him, or she shall be destroyed, saith the Lord your God; for I will destroy her; for I will magnify my name upon all those who receive and abide in my law. Therefore it shall be lawful in me, if she receive not this law, for him to receive all things whatsoever I, the Lord his God, will give unto him, because she did not administer unto him according to my word; and she then becomes the transgressor, and be is exempt from the law of Sarah, who administered unto Abraham according to the law, when I commanded Abraham to take Hagar to wife. And now, as pertaining to this law, verily, verily, I say unto you, I will reveal more unto you hereafter; therefore let this suffice for the present. Behold I am Alpha and Omega. Amen.'
house a concubine, upon the death of his wife, instead of inflicting upon his children a step-mother.
If monogamy is the only natural form of sexual relationship, how happens it that, throughout the lifetime of the race, there have been and still are so many other forms of relationship? From time immemorial polygamy has existed, and has been sanctioned by all religions. Bramin, Parsee, and Raj-poot all indulged in it. Though nothing is said of it in the new testament, we learn from the Talmud that it was lawful among the Jews about the time of Christ's coming. Among the early converts to christianity in Syria and Egypt were many polygamists who remained uncensured. The rabbies of the west prohibited it eight or nine centuries ago, but those of the east, where it is practised by nearly all nations, permit it even now. It is common to-day throughout a large part of the world. Take all the peoples of the earth, of all times and cultures, and those among whom plural wives obtained are far in excess of the others.
Pre-nuptial unchastity was scarcely censured either in Greece or Rome. "If there be any one," said Cicero, "who thinks that young men should be altogether restrained from the love of courtesans, he is indeed very severe." Even that most austere of Stoics, Epictetus, makes a wide distinction between what he regards as comparatively innocent pre-nuptial indulgences, and those which were regarded as adulterous and unlawful. While the utmost license was allowed the husband, the wife was held under close restrictions. Courtesans were the real companions of men, and the only free women in Athens. Apelles painted them; Pindar and Simonides sang their praises. Aspasia was worshipped before Pericles, and sage philosophers did not hesitate to pay homage at her shrine, and receive words of wisdom from her lips.
In imperial Rome, while the courtesan class never
attained to such distinction as in Greece, divorce was so easy and frequent as to render the marriage ceremony almost a nullity. There were periods when the term 'adultery' had no significance as applied to men; only women were punished for this crime. Persons five, ten, twenty times married and divorced were not uncommon. Though monogamy obtained, female life was lower there than in England under the restoration, or in France under the regency. Alexander Severus, the most persistent of all the Roman emperors, in vainly legislating against vice, provided his provincial governors, if unmarried, with a concubine as well as with horses and servants.
The privilege of royalty in having many mistresses, tolerated until all the people arose and usurped royalty, was but a modified form of polygamy, and is still secretly practised by individuals.
The question of sensualism has nothing to do with it. The polygamist, as a rule, is no more sensual than the monogamist. Your true sensualist does not marry at all. He holds himself free to taste pleasure as he can find it. The trammels of matrimony and the responsibilities of parentage he alike avoids. He is the most selfish of beings; for his own gratification he is willing to sacrifice society, debase manhood, and doom to perdition the highest inspirations and holiest affections of the race.
Beastliness is hardly a fit word to apply to the exercise of an animal impulse, the gratification of animal appetite. It too often maligns the brute creation. Eating and sleeping are in one sense beastly; while smoking and dram-drinking are worse than beastly. Beasts are natural in all things. In many respects they are less open to the charge of beastliness, as we commonly employ the term, than men; they indulge less in excess; they are sometimes gluttonish, but they do not intoxicate themselves; if they do not regulate intercourse by numbers, they do by seasons. Their passions are in subordination to the
laws of nature. Man's passions are not. Taking this charge of beastliness as it is meant, the polygamist is less beastly than the monogamist, who in the majority of cases is more beastly in his sexual intercourse than the beast, being less obedient to the laws of nature, less considerate for the health and strength of his one only wife. Millions of gentle, uncomplaining women have been killed by beastly husbands putting upon them more children than they should bear, not to mention innumerable cruelties of other kinds. In so far as any system is not in accordance with the laws of nature, nature will in due time assert her rights and put it down. It is said that the Mormon women are martyrs: so are other women; part of them because they are married, and part because they are not.
The readers must bear in mind that these are the assertions and arguments of polygamy, and must be prepared to take them for what they are worth, and answer them each according to the light of his own reason. I have already presented the current arguments against polygamy; these are the opinions and dogmas of the Mormons themselves, the doctrines they everywhere preach and print, teaching them to their children, inculcating them into the minds of young men and women, until they have fully imbibed them.
And thus they continue. How many husbandless women there are who drag out a miserable existence in the effort to sustain themselves without sin! how many fall into shame under the effort! Society lays no heavier burden on any of its members than on its poverty-stricken single women, reared in luxury, and unable to support themselves by work.
If you are so tender of woman, her position and morals, why not turn your batteries against the ten thousand of your own people of all classes, including preachers and legislators, who tamper with other men's wives, seduce and abandon innocent girls, keep mistresses, and frequent the haunts of prostitution?
That the race deteriorates under the polygamous system is not true, they say. The single wife is very often hurried to a premature grave by an inconsiderate or brutal husband, the offspring which she meanwhile bears being puny and ill-developed. And again, it is only the better class of men, the healthy and wealthy, the strongest intellectually and physically, who as a rule have a plurality of wives; and thus, by their becoming fathers to the largest number of children, the stock is improved.
The charge of immorality, as laid upon the Mormons as a community, is likewise untenable. Morality is the doctrine of right and wrong, the rule of conduct implying honesty and sobriety. In all honesty and sobriety the Mormons live up to their standard of right and wrong, they claim, more completely than any other people. They indulge in fewer vices, such as drunkenness, prostitution, gambling, and likewise fewer crimes. There is nothing necessarily immoral in the practice of polygamy; if it is not immoral for a man to take one wife, it is not for him to take twelve wives.
The Mormons are loyal to their consciences and convictions. They are essentially a moral people, moral in the highest sense of the term, more so, they claim, than the average American or European. They do not drink, cheat, or steal; adultery is scarcely known among them; they are not idle, profligate, or given to lying. They are true to themselves, true to their principles, and true to the world. Of what other society can you fairly say as much? They are honest in all things, and law-abiding when the law does not touch their rights or their religion; when it does, all who are not dastards will fight. Judge them by their fruits; if a sect is to be regarded from the standpoint of its imperfections and inconsistencies rather than from its results, what shall be said of christianity, which has butchered millions for the faith,
and has further committed all the wickedness flesh is heir to, or of which Satan could conceive?
It is not right to place the polygamist on a par with the bigamist. The one, without deception, and in conformity with the proclaimed tenets of his faith, takes to wife the second, or third, or twentieththe more the better for all, it is saidpromising to her the same life-long care and protection as to the first; the other breaks his contract with his first wife, and deserts her for another woman. Neither can the polygamist be justly placed on a level with the adulterer. Mormons abhor everything of the kind. The sacred ceremony of marriage signifies far more with them than with those who mark the difference between morality and immorality by a few insignificant rites.
The Mormons lay no small stress on the fact that there is always a large number of women who have no husbands, and can get none, on account of women being always so greatly in the preponderance. They deny that there are more men than women.
Whatever may be true with regard to the numerical equality or inequality of the sexes at birth, it is certain, dating back almost from the beginning, that there have always been more women than men in the world. Particularly in primitive times, owing to war or exposure, the death rate was much greater among the males than among the females. To obviate the evilfor it was early recognized that the sexes should be matedin some instances the female children were killed, but more frequently the excess of women was divided among the men. Where wars were frequent and continuous, everything else being equal, the monogamous nation could not long stand before a polygamous neighbor.
Coming down to later times, it is safe to say that there are a million more women than men in christendom to-day; there are here five millions of women who would like to marry but cannot, being denied one of the fundamental rights of humanity by statutory law.
A large class of men refuse to take upon themselves the cost and cares of matrimony, preferring more free and cheaper indulgence. Of very many of these five millions thus left to themselves, unmated, unsupported, forbidden to become plural wives, Christian civilization makes prostitutes or paupers. And this is the orthodox idea of the elevation of woman! Make angels of light and happiness of one portion, while dooming the rest, under the hard heel of social despotism, to the depths of misery and despair. Nay, more: while the men are thus busied working upon the affections of women, taking advantage of their loneliness and poverty, and constantly adding to the numbers of the lost by seducing the pure from the paths of respectability, their sisters, mothers, wives, and daughters are applying the scourge with all their might to these unfortunates, hoping thereby to gain further favor with the men by showing how much better are they than their most foully wronged sisters.
Such are the men, such the society, in which the foulest wrongs to women are so universally and constantly committedwrongs which would put to blush savages, yea, and all the devils of darkness; such are the men who wage war on the plural-wife system, which would give to this class and all classes of women home and honorable alliance.
Further than all this, polygamy claims that men or governments have no natural or moral right to forbid the practice, pass laws against it, and inflict punishments. Inherent human rights are above statutory law. Governments have no right to pass laws against gambling, prostitution, drunkenness, or any act of the individual resulting in injury only to himself. He who harms another may be punished, not he who harms himself; otherwise, who is to determine what is or what is not harmful? All men and women are every day doing things harmful to themselves, but which no one thinks of checking by legislation. By no line of logic can polygamy be rightly placed in the
criminal category. In its worst aspect, it can only be called a vice. Drunkenness is not a crime: it is a vice. Statutory law cannot justly make criminal that which by the law of human rights is only a vice. Governments may repress crime, but they never can uproot vice; and the sooner legislators realize and act upon this truth, the fewer failures they will have to record. Public sentiment and moral force are the only agencies which can be brought against this class of evils with any hope of success.
The right and wrong of the matter, as usually discussed, are not the right and wrong of nature and common sense, but of divine and human enactment, variously interpreted and viewed from different standpoints. The bible forbids prostitution, but permits polygamy; the supporters of the bible and its civilization forbid polygamy, but permit prostitution.
The Mormons are held to be a most unphilosophical sect, and yet the sentiment against them is more un-philosophical than their doctrines or practices. The American congress is not a Sunday-school, neither is it within the province of government to establish and enforce a code of ethics. Congress has no more right to legislate, against their consent, for the territories than it has for the states. I do not know that all Mormons hold to this opinion, but many of them do. The idea of political nonage is only an idea; it is not a fact. Murder, theft, breach of contract, malefeasance in office, unjust monopoly, cheating, slave-holding, adulteration, bigamy, etc., are crimes to be punished by law. Drunkenness, gambling, prostitution, and the like, are vices to be uprooted by precept and example. A crime is an injury to one's neighbor; a vice is an injury to one's self. I have no right to injure my neighbor, but I have the right to do as I will with my own and myself, howsoever foolish may be the act. Congress, indeed, would have its hands full were it to undertake to pass laws to keep men from making fools of themselves. If polygamy must be
placed in one category or the other, it must be denominated a vice, and not a crime. If one man and three women contract to live in a connubial relationship, neither God nor nature pronounces it a crime. In bigamy the marriage contract is broken; in polygamy it is kept. Admit that monogamy is best, that one man for one woman tends to the highest culture, it still does not prove that coercion in morals is better than precept and example. Is woman less chaste than in the days of feudalism, now that she is less watched? If the law has the right to limit a man to one wife, it may if it chooses deny him any wife, as many orders among the Greeks and Armenians, the heathens and christians, have declared. If one man is restricted by law to one woman, the least the law can do in common justice is to compel every man to marry one woman. Why does not the United States war upon the catholic priest or the unprincipled debauchee, who by refusing to take a wife repudiates the laws of nature, and sets an example which if universally followed would prove the strangulation of the race? Better punish those who denaturalize themselves rather than those who are too natural.
This is what Utah polygamy says to civilization.20
20My references to articles, both printed and in manuscript, relating to polygamy, are no less voluminous than those touching upon other church matters. I note as follows: early polygamists, Ferris' Utah and Morm., 117; Smucker's Hist. Morm., 161-2; Young's Wife No. 19, 150-5; Stenhouse's Exposé, 85-93; Atlantic Monthly, 1859, 576-7; denial of exist., Stenhouse's Tell It All, 103-4, 499-500; Pratt, in Millennial Star, vi. 22; Lee's Morm., 167; Young's Wife No. 19, 329-31; favored by women, Des. News, 1870, Jan. 12, 19; 1871, Nov. 8, Dec. 20; S. F. Gol. Era, June 13, 1868; Woodruff's Autobiog., MS., 4-6; The Morm. at Home, 145-7, 159; S. L. Herald, Feb. 1, 1879; Burton's City of Saints, 525-34; Ward's Husband in Utah, 130-4, 216-22; Tanner's Letter, MS., passim; Smoot's Experience, etc., MS., 4, 8-9; Tracy's Narr., MS., 30-2; Richards' Retain., MS., 18-19, 36-7, 48-9; Pratt (Belinda M.), in Utah Pamph. Relig., no. 3, 27-33; Marshall's Through Amer., 185-8; Millennial Star, xvii. 36-7; Brown's Letter, MS., passim; arg. in favor of, Smith's Rise, Progress, etc., 48-56; Millennial Star, xix. 636-40, xxxvii. 340-1; Beadle's Life in Utah, 252-4; Paddock's La Tour, 324-5; Ferris' Utah and Morm., 115-17; Johnson, in Utah Tracts, no. 10; Richardson, with Taylor's Govt of God, no. 19; Spencer, with Id., no. 18; Taylor vs Hollister, Sup. Ct Decis., no. 2, in Morm. Pamph.; Cannon's Rev. of Decis., no. 11, in Id.; Robinson's Sinners and Saints, 82-109; Dilke's Greater Brit., i. 130; Stenhouse's Exposé, 218-21; Tell It All, 256-8; Richards' Narr., MS., 79-81; Worthington's Women, etc., 592-3; Busch, Gesch. Morm., 340-52, 407-44; Times and (cont.)
In reply to the charge of disloyalty, of maintaining an anti-American attitude toward the people of America, of endeavoring by any illegal or indirect means to undermine the institutions of the country
(20cont.) Seasons, vi. 798-9; Tullidge's Women, etc., 367-78; Boisé City Statesman, Sept. 30, 1879; S. F. Alta, Nov. 13, 1857; Chronicle, 1880, Dec. 12; 1882, Feb. 15, July 29; Stock Rept, Jan. 8, 1880; Des. News, 1857, May 13, July 16; 1866, Mar. 15; 1867, Apr. 17, 24; 1871, Oct. 11; S. L. Contrib., ii. 213; Tribune, 1875, July 17; 1879, Oct. 10, 11; S. F. Herald, 1852, Sept. 17; 1853, Mar. 1; 1869, Aug. 28; 1880, Jan. 6, 18; sermons, Young, Dilke's Greater Brit., i. 129; Young, Jour. of Disc., ii. 75-90; S. iv. Bulletin, 1856, Sept. 16; 1862, Sept. 10; 1866, Oct. 26; 1869, Mar. 3; 1874, Nov. 13; Call, 1867, Sept. 11; 1868, Sept. 5; Occident, July 10, 1873; Sac. Union, Jan. 12, 1856; Elko Indpt, Sept. 6, 1873; Pan. Star and Her., Jan. 1867; Boisé City Statesman, July 24, 1869; Salem (Or.)Statesman, May 5, 1857; S. L. Herald, June 6, 1877; Ward's Husband in Utah, 104-30, 245-6, 303-7; Des. News, May 25, 1870; Pratt, Smith, and Cannon, Discourses, passim; disc., Pratt, Des. News, Oct. 20, 1869; Hyde, S. F. Herald, Nov. 23, 1854; Des. News, May 9, 1860; Young (John), Id., Apr. 22, 1857; origin and prog., S. F. Bulletin, 1858, July 23; 1859, Apr. 16; 1868, July 18; 1869, Mar. 1; 1870, Nov. 12; 1871, July 6; 1872, Feb. 21, June 25; 1882, Mar. 3; Call, 1865, Aug. 2; 1868, Aug. 29; 1869, Feb. 28; 1874, July 15, Oct. 21; Gol. Era, July 3, 1869; Plac. Times, Feb. 2, 1850; N. Y. Her., in Watsonville Pajar., June 6, 1872; Cal. Chris. Advoc., Oct. 15, 1874; Cal. Farm., June 16, 1870; Des. News, 1866, Mar. 22, Apr. 19, May 17; 1879, May 7, 14; S. L. Contrib., iii. 61; Herald, May 23, 77; Review, 1871, Dee. 11, 19; Telegraph, May 26, 1868; Tribune, 1874, May 16; 1883, Oct. 20; Sac. Union, Nov. 26, Dec. 5, 1856; S. L. Herald, in Helena Gaz., Apr. 27, 1872; Cole, Cal., 18; Beadle's Letter, Jan. 1, 1869; Life in Utah, 346-7; The Morm. at Home, 94-5, 102, 111-12; Young's Wife No. 19, 124-6, 135-59; Olshausen, Gesch. Morm., 175-84; Smucker's Hist. Morm., 402-24; Bertrand's Mem. Morm., 173-217; Busch, Gesch. Morm., 105-33, 313-17; Marshall's Through Amer., 221; Stenhouse's Englishwoman in Utah, 38-9, 76-87, 153-4; Slater, Morm., 85-6; Burton's City of Saints, 217, 301-2; The Morm. Proph., 211-14; Ferris' Utah and Morm., 239, 248-64, 309-11; Mackay's The Morm., 287; Olympia, Pion. and Dem., Feb. 6, 1857; women's opposition, Stenhouse's Exposé, 34-41, 72-84; Tell It All, 393-404, 420-58.
For arguments against polygamy, see Ward's Husband in Utah, 180, 303-5; Beadle's Life in Utah, 262-4, 354-80; Nouv. Ann. Voy., cxliii. 183-4; Carvallo's Inc. of Travel, 151-4, 166-71; Hall's Morm. Exp., 52-5; Overland Monthly, vii. 551-8; De Rupert, Cal. and Morm., 153-62; Todd's Sunset Land, 161-212; Dilke's Greater Brit., i. 144-52; Remy's Journey, etc., ii. 137-72; Young's Wife No. 19, 98-109, 591-7; Pop. Scien. Month., lii. 479-90, lvi. 160-5; Codman's Round Trip, 173-277; Froiseth's Women, etc., passim; Jonveaux, L'Amer., 230-49; Waite's Morm. Proph., 216-60; Book of Morm., 83, 132; Doc. and Cov., 218, 330; Tuckcr's Morm., 184-6, 267, 283; Times and Seasons, iv. 369; Ferris' Utah and Morm., 309-10; Marshall's Through Amer., 178-9; Harper's Mag., liii. 647-51; Stansbury's Explor. Exp., 4-5; Life Among Morm., 123-59; Utah Scraps, 15-17; Townsend's Morm. Trials, 42-3; Greenwood's New Life, 131-71, 161-3; Hubner's Ramble, 90, 116; Olshausen, Morm., 175-82; McClure's Three Thous. Miles, etc., 158-9; Nordhoff's Cal., 43; Burton's City of Saints, 517-25; Crimes of L. D. Saints, 30-4; Hyde's Morm., 284-5; Dixon's White Conq., i. 200-14; Stenhouse's Exposé, 47-51, 146-53; Taylder's Morm., 148-83; Barnes' Atlan. to Pac., 56-8; Greeley's Overland Jour., 238-41; Howitt's Hist. Amer., ii. 356; Richardson's Beyond Miss., 360-2; S. F. Advocate, Aug. 4, 1870; Alta, Mar. 26, 1877; Feb. 7, 1882; Bulletin, 1856, Aug. 18; 1860, Apr. 28; 1864, Jan. 18; 1865, Aug, 24; 1867, Oct. 25; 1870, Apr. 22, Sept. 2; 1871, Nov. 6; 1872, Sept. 25; 1873, Jan. 17, Dec. 17; (cont.)
and eventually usurp the government, the Mormons say that it is not true. It is not true that Mormons are not good citizens, law-abiding and patriotic. Even when hunted down and robbed and butchered by the
(20cont.) 1875, Apr. 9; 1877, June 1, Aug. 3; 1878, Jan. 8, Nov. 1; 1879, Jan. 7, 10, 21; 1881, Aug. 22; Call, 1870, Mar. 27; 1871, June 30, Aug. 9, 18; 1872, Feb. 21, Sept. 6; 1873, Feb. 11; 1874, Jan. 14; 1879, Aug. 11; Cal. Farm., Apr. 17, 1863; Chronicle, 1869, June 26, July 28, Aug. 11, 17, 18, 22, Nov. 12, 28, Dec. 14; 1870, Jan. 28, Feb. 27, May 8, 17; 1871, Sept. 21, Oct. 4, 8, 14, 17, 31, Nov. 5, Dec. 2; 1872, Feb. 3, 10, Apr. 20, Oct. 10; 1873, Apr. 11, 12, July 17, 27, 31, Aug. 1, 6, 26, Mar. 4; 1880, Oct. 14, 24, Nov. 6, 14, 28; 1881, Jan. 9; Gol. Era, Sept. 26, 1869; News Letter, Mar. 16, 1867; Pacif. Observ., Nov. 10, 1871; Pioneer, Sept. 15, 1873; Post, 1879, Sept. 11, Dec. 5; Times, 1869, Jan. 5, Mar. 25; Town Talk, Nov. 26, 1856; Sac. Union, May 11, 1859; San José Herald, Apr. 20, 1877; Jackson (Am.) Ledger, Dec. 15, 1877; Sta Barbara Index, Mar. 8, 1877; San Rafael Jour., Oct. 16, 1879; May 20, 1880; Red Bluff Sentinel, Nov. 16, 1878; Jan. 18, 1879; Ukiah Democ., Sept. 6, 1879; Cres. City Cour., Oct. 15, 1879; Roseburg Plaindealer, Dec. 20, 1879; Marin Co. Jour., Oct. 16, 1879; Monterey Cal., Feb. 4, 1879; Antioch Ledger, Nov. 23, 1878; Healdsburg, Russ. Riv. Flag, Aug. 22, 1872; Ogden (Utah) Freeman, Max. 28, 1879; S. L. Anti-Polyg. Standard, June 1880; Contributor, iii. passim; Des. News, 1854, Aug. 24, Oct. 5; 1858, Aug. 11, 25; 1866, Mar. 29; 1867, July 3; 1869, Aug. 5, Sept. 22; 1870, Feb. 2; 1871, Nov. 1; 1878, Nov. 20; 1884, Sept. 10; Utah Rev., 1871, Aug. 18, Dec. 5; 1872, Jan. 12, 26; Tribune, 1872, May 25, June 1; 1874, Mar. 21, Apr. 4, Oct. 24; 1875, Aug. 21; 1876, Jan. 5, Nov. 19; 1877, Apr. 14, Aug. 25; 1878, Oct. 1, Nov. 22, Dec. 21; Apr. 20, May 9, June 25, 29, July 17, Aug. 23, Sept. 24, Oct. 3, 10, 29, Nov. 16; 1883, June 7; 1884, Sept. 7, 14; Austin (Nev.) Reese Riv. Reveil., Feb. 15, 1866, Mar. 5, 1872; Carson State Regis., Oct. 24, 1871; Elko Indep., Aug. 11, 1879; Eureka Sentinel, Aug. 28, 1879; Gold Hill News, Dec. 6, 1878; Tuscarora Times-Rev., Nov. 22, 1878; Virg. City Chron., Dec. 12, 1877; Winnemucca, Silv. State, Apr. 26, 1880; Prescott (Ariz.) Miner, Aug. 15, 1879; Helena (Mont.) Indep., Mar. 12, 1875; Boisé (Idah.) News, Aug. 27, 1864; City Statesman, May 24, 1879; Oxford (Idah.) Enterprise, Oct. 9, 1879; Portland (Or.) Bee, Oct. 30, 1878; Oregonian, July 28, 1865; Ev. Telegram, May 1, 1879; Astoria, Astorian, Jan. 19, 1878; Eugene City Guard, Feb. 1, 1879; Salem Mercury, Oct. 29, 1870; Dy Talk, Nov. 7, 1879; socialism, Woods (J. O.), in N. Y. Church Union, Aug. 15, 1884; suggest. for suppress. polyg., Colfax, in Freiseth, Women, 360-2; Bliss in Id., 367-71; Ward's Husband in Utah, 55-62; Crimes of L .D. Saints, i.-iii.; Russling, Across Amer., 191-5; S. F. Alta, Jan. 8, 1880; Bulletin, Feb. 8, 1859; Nov. 29, 1883; Inyo Indep., July 27, 1872; sermons against, Smith (T. W.), in N. Y. Herald, Feb. 20, 1882; Higbee, A Discourse, etc., passim; Sac. Union, May 12, 1855; Nov. 15, 1856; S. L Review, Sept. 15, 1871; S. F. Alta, Nov. 8, 1878; Ogden Freeman, May 30, 1879; marriage, social and moral effects, Young's Wife No. 19, 388-9; S. F. Alta, Oct. 14, 1857; Pratt, in Des. News, Jan. 16, 1856; sealing for eternity, Chandless, Visit to S. L., 161-2; Stenhouse's Exposé, 69-70; Rocky Mtn Saints, 586-8; .Englishwoman in Utah, 120-1; Tell It All, 405-19, 550, 607; S. F. Bulletin, Jan. 27, 1872; Oct. 29, 1878; Ferris' Utah and Mormons, 233-46; Young's Wife No. 19, 310-18; Ward's Husband in Utah, 12-38, 208-12; Hyde's Morm., 83-9; Tucker's Morm., 270-5; San Jose Herald-Argus, Nov. 22, 1878; Dall, My First Holiday, 91; first monog. marriage, S. F. Call, Feb. 8, 1865; divorce, Utah Laws, 1878, 1-2; Utah Scraps, 19; Stenhouse's Tell It All, 390-1, 554-8; S. F. Alta, 1873, July 31, Aug. 9, 23; Bulletin, 1877, Sept. 27, Oct. 11; Cal. Farm., May 12, 1870; Post, Feb. 13, 1873; Stock Exch., Feb. 23, 1878; Sta Rosa Times, Nov. 1, 1877; S. L. Tribune, 1874, Mar. 28; 1877, June 9, July 14, Sept. 29; Virg. City Chron., Sept. 27, 1877; dower, Paddock's La Tour, 293; (cont.)
enemies to their faith, they have not retaliated.On this point they are naturally very sore.When deprived of those sacred rights given to them in common with all American citizens, when disfranchised, their
(20cont.) Utah, Gov. Mess., 1882, 14; adultery, Dilke's Greater Brit., i. 127; Kanesville (Iowa) Front. Guard., June 13, 1851; Crimes of L. D. Saints, 2-6; condition of women, Duffus-Hardy's Through Cities, etc., 103-4; Leslie, California, etc., 76-102; Putnam's Mag., 144-607, passim; Utah Scraps, 18-19; Young's Wife No. 19, 224-531, passim; Cradlebaugh, Speech of, 4-7; Bowles' Our New West, 249-53; Ward's Husband in Utah, 23-303, passim; The Morm. Proph., 218-77; Life Among Morm., 183-6; Prime's Around the World, 31-2; Dilke's Greater Brit., i. 129; Hyde's Morm., 51-82, 158-67; Hall's Morm., 113; Tucker's Morm., 173-82, 275-6; Appleton's Jour., xi. 547-8; Morm. at Home, 116-85; Clark's Sights, MS., 7-11; Mackay's The Morm., 298, 303; Smith's Mys. and Crimes, 38-43; Bonwick's Morm. and Silv. Mines, 110-140; Jackson's Bits of Trav. at Home, 22-7; Greenwood's New Life, 160-1; Gunnison's Morm., 75, 159-61; Stenhouse's Englishwoman, 202-339; Exposé, 96-190; Tell It All, passim; S. F. Alta, July 17, 1873; Call, Oct. 8, 1876; Bulletin, 1856, Nov. 24; 1858, Nov. 17; 1871, May 4, July 25; 1872, Sept. 30; 1872, Aug. 20; 1877, July 19; Herald, Nov. 24, 1856; Mail, Jan. 4, 1876; Pacif. Baptist, Sept. 17, 1874; Post, Nov. 18, 1872; Eureka Sentinel, Jan. 22, 1875; Placer Herald, Nov. 4, 1871; Red Bluff Indept, Apr. 3, 1867; Sac. Union, Aug. 25, 1855; Aug. 19, 1857; Bee, Nov. 9, 1878; S. L. Obispo Tribune, May 5, 1877; Stockton In-dept, Mar. 8, 1879; S. L. Des. News, Oct. 5, 1850; Jan. 15, 1868; Apr. 27, 1870; Herald, Nov. 12, 1878; June 25, 1879; Utah Rev., 1871, Aug, 21, Oct. 7, Dec. 7, 19; 1872, Jan. 17, 20, 24; Tribune, 1877, Apr. 28, May 19, 26, June 9; Kanesville (Iowa) Front. Guard., June 13, 1849; Belmont (Nev.) Cour., Jan. 12, 1878; Portland (Or.) Oregonian, Dec. 24, 1863; Ev. Telegram, May 5, 1879; Young's wives, Stenhouse's Englishwoman, 168-78; Exposé, 154-97; Tell It All, 510-14; Ward's Husband in Utah, 243-4; Morm. at Home, 130-1; Young's Wife No. 19, 598-605; S. L. Tribune, 1874, Apr. 25, May 23, July 18; S. F. Call, 1874, Aug. 27, Oct. 4; 1866, Mar. 29, Aug. 2; 1867, Feb. 1; Deer Lodge (Mont.) New N. West, Jan. 31, 1874. For references to polygamy in presidential messages, see S. F. Times, June 27, 1869; U.S. H. Ex. Doc., i., 42 Cong., 2d Sess.; S. F. Bulletin, Aug. 1, 1872; Post, Feb. 15, 1873; Elko Indept, Dec. 18, 1875; S. L. Herald, Dec. 8, 1881; N. Y. The Nation, Dec. 15, 1881.
In his message to the congress of 1883-4, the president favors a repeal of the organic act, and recommends a federal commission as a substitute. In commenting upon this, the Des. News declares that the destruction of the local government will fail to destroy polygamy, neither can 'commissions, edicts, or armies, or any other earthly powers,' for the plural marriages of the Mormons are ecclesiastical, perpetual, and eternal. Says W. S. Godbie, well-known writer on Mormonism, in a letter to the S. L. Tribune of Dec. 9, 1883, after first quoting George Q. Cannon as preaching in the tabernacle 'it is not vox populi vox Dei,' but 'vox Dei vox populi,' 'The essence of the whole Utah question lies couched in these telling words of the church organ and the leading apostle.'
For the messages of Utah governors touching polygamy, see Utah Jour. Legis., 1862-3, app. v.-viii.; 1872, 32-4; 1876, 31-3, 34, 240; 1878, 43, 44-5, 47-9; Utah, Gov. Mess., 1882, 11; S. F. Call, Jan. 28, 1872; Jan. 17, 1878; Prescott Miner, Apr. 30, 1875; Morm. Prophet, 79-84; Hazen's report, in Hayes' Scraps, R. R. iii. 212; discussions in congress, S. F. Bulletin, Mar. 23, 1870; Call, 1870, Feb. 19, Mar. 24, Aug. 16; Chronicle, Feb. 16, 1882; Deer Lodge New N. West, Apr. 29, 1870; S. L .Dy Teletgraph, Mar. 23, 24, 1870; Des. News, May 16, 1860; Apr. 26, 1866; Apr. 3, 1867; Mar. 9, 1870; Apr. 6, 1870; Nov. 29, 1871; Mar. 6, 1872; Tribune, May 15, 1875; Millennial Star, xxxiv. 257-63, 268-71; (cont.)
homes broken up, their families scattered, the husband and father seized, fined, and imprisoned, they have not defended themselves by violence, but have left their cause to God and their country.
(20cont.) Antioch Ledger, Jan. 17, 1874; Gooch's Speech, Apr. 1860; Green, Morm., 457-65; Beadle's Life in Utah, 523-6; Utah Pamph., Polit., no. 2; Id., Relig., no. 7; Colfax's Morm. Quest., passim; Prescott Miner, Apr. 30, 1875; also Cong. Globe, passim; bills introd. in congress, U. S. H. Jour., 34 Cong., 1st-2d Sess., 1117-18; U.S. Acts, 37 Cong., 2d Sess., 208-9; S. F. Bulletin, Apr. 1, 1870; S. L. Dy Telegraph, Mar. 25, 1870; Cong. Globe, 1870-1, 966; N. Y. Herald, Jan. 27, 1872; Utah, Jour. Legis., 1872, 84; 1878, 203-4; Nat. Quart. Rev., July 1879, 91-2; U. S. Dist Atty, in Froiseth's Women, etc., 334-5, 346 -51, 355; S. L. Herald, Dec. 15, 1881; Robinson's Sinners and Saints, 74-81; S. L. Contributor, iii. 204-13; S. F. Alta, 1874, Mar. 1, June 3, Dec. 6; S. F. Bulletin, Dec. 14, 1881; Call, Jan. 9, 1879; Feb. 17, 1882; Chronicle, 1881, Dec. 13; 1882, Jan. 25, Feb. 17; 1884, June 18; Post, Feb. 27, 1873; June 3, 1874; S. José Mercury, Dec. 1878; Austin, Reese Riv. Reveil., Aug. 12, 1879; Eureka Sentinel, Jan. 28, 1879; Gold Hill News, Jan. 3, 1878; S. L. Tribune, Feb. 2, 1878; U.S. Acts and Res., passim.
Arthur G. Sedgwick, in the Century Mag. for Jan. 1882, under the heading Leading Aspects of the Mormon Problem, refers to the various bills introduced, and mentions the most important prosecutions and their results: decis. of U.S. Supreme Ct, S. L. Herald, 1879, Jan. 8, May 23; Tribune, Aug. 2, 1879; S. F. Bulletin, 1879, Jan. 7, 8, Feb. 24; Eureka Sentinel, Jan. 16, 1879; evasion of the Edmunds law, S. F. Bulletin, 1883, Apr. 30, Sept. 29; grand juries, charges to, S. F. Bulletin, Dec. 9, 1858; Salem (Oregon) Argus, Aug. 28, 1858; Sac. Union, Apr. 20, 22, 1867; S. F. Call, Oct. 14, 1875; competency of polygamists as jurors, S. L. Utah Rev., 1871, Sept. 19, 27; report of, Deseret News, Oct. 3, 1877; rept of commission, Utah, Rept on Gov. Mess., 9-13; S. F. Bulletin, Dec. 7, 1882; Chronicle, Oct. 3, 1882; cause of trouble with U.S., Richards' Narr., MS., 74; discuss. between Colfax and Morm., Bowles' Our New West, 238-41; Des. News, Feb. 9, 1870; Chaplain Newman and others, Pratt and Newman, etc., 3-67; Tullidge's Life of Young, 403-6; Newman, Sermon, passim; Des. News, Aug. 17, 1870; corresp. Newman and Young, Id., 1870, Aug. 10, 17;mass-meetings, memorials, petitions, and protests, Tullidge's Life of Young, 389-413; Women of Morm., 379-402, 528-31; Coyner's Letters, etc., vii.; Stenhouse's Englishwoman, etc., 373-4; Tell It All, 606-7; U.S. H. Ex. Doc., 58, 45 Cong., 3d Sess., 1-6; Utah Pamph., Relig., no. 18; The Cullom Bill, in Morm. Pamph., no. 6; S. F. Alta, Apr. 22, 1872; Bulletin, Jan. 18, 1870; Nov. 9, 1878; Jan. 21, 1879; Feb. 17, 23, 1882; Call, Nov. 8, 1878; Chronicle, Feb. 3, 27, 1882; Petaluma Argus, Nov. 22, 1878; Sac. Bee, Nov. 16, 1878; Stockton Indept, Jan. 21, 1878; Elko Indept, Nov. 15, 1878; Eureka Sentinel, Nov. 17, 1878; Gold Hill News, Nov. 8, 1878; Reno Gazette, Nov. 21, 1878; S. L. Contributor, iii. 155-6; Des. News, 1867, Jan. 16; 1870, Apr. 6; 1872, May 22, 29; Herald, June 14, 1879; Telegraph, Apr. 1, 1870; Tribune, 1878, Nov. 16, 23; the Reynolds case, Froiseth's Women, 401-12; Utah Pamph., Polit., no. 17, 20; Review of Opin., etc., in Morm. Pamph., no. 1; S. F. Bulletins, Aug. 21, 1874; Call, Dec. 22, 1875; Dec. 10, 1878; Elko Indept, 1878, Oct. 30, Nov. 13; 1879, Jan. 8; Eureka Sentinel, Aug. 6, 1879; Gold Hill News, Nov. 15, 1878; Tuscarora Times-Rev., Nov. 21, 1878; S. L. Coutributor, ii. 154-7, 188-90; Des. News, 1874, Oct. 28; 1875, Apr. 7; 1878, Oct. 9; 1879, Jan. 15, 29, Dec. 3; Herald, July 19, 1879; the Miles case, S. F. Bulletin, May 7, 1879; Call, Oct. 31, 1878; Sac. Rec.-Union, May 5, 7, 1879; Elko Indept, June 5, 1879; Virg. City Eve. Chron., Oct. 30, 31, Nov. 8, 1878; S. L. Des. News, 1878, Nov. 6, 13; 1879, May 7, 14, June 4; Herald, 1878, Oct. 27, 29, Nov. 5; 1879, Apr. 29, 30, May 1-4, 6, 7.
On March 10, 1863, the president of the church was arrested, as we shall see later, the charge being polygamy, and brought under the act of July 1, 1862; the accused was placed under bonds in the sum of $2,000 to appear (cont.)
Much has been said in terms of reproach against the unity and brotherhood of the Mormons, or as it is more often denominated, their exclusiveness or clannishness, as applied to their social, business, and religious relations. It is said that they hold to one another, band against all societies and interests except their own; that they hold all the agricultural lands, coöperate in commerce and manufactures, vote all one way, and so work into one another's hands in every way; that no other people can stand up in competition with them.
(20cont.) at the next sitting of the U.S. ct for the 3d judic. dist. On Oct. 2, 1871, he was again arrested on an indictment of the grand jury, found under the statutes of Utah; see Utah Laws, 58, sec. 32, which prohibits the cohabitation of persons not married to each other. On Jan. 2, 1872, Brigham was for the third time arrested, the accusation on this occasion being complicity in the murder of one Richard Yates in Echo Cañon, in 1857. There being no government jail, and the prisoner old and feeble, he was allowed to remain in his own house under charge of the U.S. marshal. It does not appear that, beyond the annoyance caused by restraint of liberty, Brigham suffered in consequence of either of these charges. For details of the arrests, I refer to Millennial Star, xxv. 273-4, xxxiii. 696-700, 708-14, 728, xxxiv. 58-60, 70-1, 120-3, 209-15; S. F. Alta, 1871, Oct. 3, 4, 8, 13, 28, 29, Nov. 1, 22, 24, 1872, Apr. 26; Bulletin, 1871, Oct. 3, 9, 13, 25, 27, 30, 31, Nov. 21, 28; 1872, Jan. 3, 8, Apr. 26; Call, 1870, Jan. 3; 1871, Oct. 3, 5, 11, 17, Nov. 22, 28; 1872, Apr. 26; Examiner, 1871, Oct. 6, 9, 13, 17, 19, 25, Nov. 2, 22, 28; 1872, Jan. 3, Feb. 14; Gol. Era, Nov. 12, 1871; Sac. Unions, 1871, Oct. 6, 18; S. L. Des. News, 1871, Oct. 11, 18, Nov. 1, 8, 22; 1872, May 1; Tribune, 1872, Feb. 1, Apr. 27; Utah Review, 1871, Oct. 12, 13, 20, 21, Nov. 25, 27, Dec. 1, 4; 1872, Jan. 16, Feb. 10; Carson State Regis., Oct. 14, 1871; Elko Indept, Jan. 6, 1872; Silver City (Id.) Avalanche, Oct. 7, 1871; Portland (Or.) Deutsche Zeit., Nov. 4, 1871.
On Oct. 28, 1871, Thomas Hawkins, of Salt Lake City, having been found guilty of adultery with two women, under a territorial statute approved by Gov. Young on Mar. 6, 1852, was sentenced to three years' imprisonment and to pay $500 fine; see S. F. Alta, Oct. 4, 1871; Bulletin, Nov. 3, 1871; Sac. Unions, 1871, Oct. 24, 30, Nov. 1. On Mar. 6, 1879, Dan. H. Wells was imprisoned for two days and fined $100 for contempt of court in refusing to testify as to the garments worn during the endowment ceremonies. Juv. Inst., xiv. 114-15; McClellan, Golden State, 587-9. In 1873, Ann Eliza Young, known as Wife No. 19, began suit against Brigham for divorce, with alimony. About two years later she was awarded $500 per month, which decision was afterward set aside, but not, Tullidge says, until Brigham had been imprisoned for contempt of court, and had paid two months' alimony and $4,000 counsel fees; see Young's Wife No. 19, 553-65; Tullidge's Life of Young, 431-3; Helena (Mont.) Indept, Nov. 25, 1875; Virginia Madisonian, June 9, 1877; S. F. Bulletin, 1873, July 29, 31; 1875, Feb. 26, May 11; 1876, Nov. 1, 8; Call, July 10, 1875; Los Angeles Star, May 5, 1877; Dayton (Lyon co.) Times, May 2, 1877; Eureka Sentinel, Jan. 10, 1879; Gold Hill News, Apr. 28, 1877; S. L. Des. News, Apr. 24, 1872; Sept. 2, 1874; Mar. 3, Nov. 3, 24, 1875; Aug. 2, Nov. 8, 1876; Tribune, Nov. 16, 1875; July 22, 1876; Apr. 28, 1877.
Herewith I give a table, brought down to include 1882, compiled from census of 1880, police and penitentiary statistics, and report of commissioners appointed under the Edmunds bill, comparing the distribution of criminals (cont.)
Grant it, they answer; is it a crime? May not people legally labor hard, practise frugality, worship God after their own fashion, and vote as they choose? Is this contrary to the free enlightenment of American institutions?
Of what are the people of the United States afraid, with their fifty millions of free, intelligent, progressive men and women, that they should deem it their duty to be seized with such a savage hate toward this handful of poor and despised religionists? In the evolution of society as an organism, the fittest is sure to remain. If this principle be true, it is perfectly safe to let the Mormons alone. Their evil practices, as well as those of their enemies, are sure in due time to be dissipated by the ever-increasing enlightenment of
(20cont.) between Mormon and non-Mormon. The table includes the Mormon settlements in Idaho.
The prostitutes enumerated are those in S. L. City only; to these it will be safe to add as many more living in the outside towns and mining camps. In 1880, the population of Utah was 143,963, that of Oneida. co., Idaho, was 6,964, and there were 3,235 souls in Bear Lake county. About 7,000 women were in 1885 living in polygamy in Utah. See Richards' Crime in Utah, MS., passim.
civilization. The best will remain, while the rest will be destroyed.
As a remedy against the Mormon evil, many plans have been put forth. "Send an army and wipe them out," say the unthinking masses. An army was sent once, but when it came to Utah there was nothing at hand to wipe out. But should an army go and find them there, it would hardly be prepared to enter upon the wholesale slaughter of 140,000 men, women, and children while in pursuit of their daily vocations. Education has been urged. This means is already employed; but while there are gentile schools, the Mormons still teach Mormonism, and the more they educate, the stronger and more widely extended becomes their faith. Senator Hoar suggested seizing the perpetual emigration fund, but this appeared too much like robbery. Make marriage a civil compact, give the wife the right of dower, and so make her less dependent on the husband, some have said. Amend the constitution, prohibiting polygamy, others have urged. But if congressional enactment fails, what can constitutional amendment do? Admit Utah as a state, and let the people split into parties, and so fight out their own issues. But they will not split into parties, is the reply. If they were like other people, this might be the result; but they are not like other people. For the people to differ from their chiefs on matters of government, or on any other matters, would throw them outside the category of Mormons. Such a thing cannot be. Their government, ecclesiastical and civil, is a government of God; their chief is God's prophet and vicegerent, and his will is God's will and cannot be questioned.
By the Edmunds act, approved March 22, 1882, congress made polygamy punishable by disfranchisement, and a fine of not more than five hundred dollars, with imprisonment for not more than three years, the children to be deemed illegitimate. There have
been numerous convictions under this law, bringing serious injury upon individuals, and greatly alarming the entire brotherhood. Many other schemes have been urged. Cut up the territory and divide it among the adjacent states; permit the wife to testify against her husband; compel marriages to be registered; throw in more gentile population, establishing milliners' shops for the women and whiskey-shops for the men, so that the full force of civilization may be brought to bear upon them. A proposed remedy is for congress to assume the political powers, and govern the country by a commission of nine or thirteen members appointed for that purpose, and which, the majority being always gentiles, would adopt the necessary laws for the government of the territory, instead of congress or a legislature. Executive and judicial affairs would go on in the usual way; and as for the municipal, the commission as a legislature could make such regulations as they pleased, providing for the appointment of mayors by the governor if necessary. In such an event there would not be held ally elections of any kind. A board of five commissioners was appointed under act of congress of March 22, 1882, but nothing extraordinary came of it.
In conclusion, it is scarcely necessary to say that an intelligent and well-balanced mind, free from the bias of religion, and regarding the well-being and refinement of the race as most greatly to be desired, cannot look upon polygamy as conducive to the highest culture. On the other hand, it may as truthfully be said that coercion is not consistent with the highest type of morality, and that a social despotism, in the name of freedom and pure republicanism, can become the severest of tyrannies.
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