p. 38     Ans. "The twenty-four inch gauge is an instrument made use of by operative masons to measure and lay out their work, but we as Free and Accepted Masons are taught to make use of it for the more noble and glorious purpose of dividing our time; the twenty-four inches on the gauge are emblematical of the twenty-four hours in the day, which we are taught to divide into three equal parts, whereby we find eight hours for the service of God and a worthy distressed brother, eight hours for our usual vocation, and eight hours for refreshment and sleep. The common gavel is an instrument made use of by operative masons to break off the corners of rough stones, the better to fit them for the builder's use, but we, as Free and Accepted Masons, are taught to make use of it for the more noble and glorious purpose of divesting our hearts and consciences of all the vices and superfluities of life, thereby fitting our minds as lively and living stones for that spiritual building, that House not made with hands, eternal in the heavens."

    "What were you next presented with?"

    Ans. "A new name."

    "What was that?"

    Ans. "Caution."

    "What does it teach?"

    Ans. "It teaches me as I was barely instructed in the rudiments of Masonry, that I should be cautious over all my words and actions, especially when before its enemies."

    "What were you next presented with?"

    Ans. "Three precious jewels."

    "What are they?"

    Ans. "A listening ear, a silent tongue, and a faithful heart."

    "What do they teach?"

    Ans. "A listening ear teaches me to listen to the instructions of the Worshipful Master, but more especially that I should listen to the calls and cries of a worthy distressed brother. A silent tongue teaches me to be silent in the lodge, that the peace and harmony thereof may not be disturbed; but more especially that I should be silent when before the enemies of Masonry. A faithful heart, that I should be faithful to the instructions of the Worshipful Master at all times, but more especially that I should be faithful

p. 39 and keep and conceal the secrets of Masonry, and those of a brother, when given to me in charge as such, that they remain as secure and inviolable in my breast, as in his own before communicated to me."

    "What were you next presented with?"

    Ans. "Check-words two."

    "What were they?"

    Ans. "Truth and Union."

    "How explained?"

    "Truth is a divine attribute, and the foundation of every virtue. To be good and true are the first lessons we are taught in Masonry. On this theme we contemplate, and by its dictates endeavor to regulate our conduct; hence, while influenced by this principle, hypocrisy and deceit are unknown amongst us; sincerity and plain dealing distinguishes us; and heart and tongue join in promoting each other's welfare, and rejoicing in each other's prosperity. Union is that kind of friendship that ought to appear conspicuous in the conduct of every Mason. It is so closely allied to the divine attribute, truth, that he who enjoys the one is seldom destitute of the other. Should interest, honor, prejudice, or human depravity ever influence you to violate any part of the sacred trust we now repose in you, let these two important words, at the earliest insinuation, teach you to put on the check-line of truth, which will infallibly direct you to pursue that strait and narrow path, which ends in the full enjoyment of the Grand Lodge above, where we shall all meet as Masons and members of one family; where all discord on account of religion, politics or private opinion shall be unknown and banished from within our walls."

    "What followed?"

    Ans. "The Worshipful Master in the east made a demand of me something of a metalic kind, which he said was not so much on account of its intrinsic value, as that it might be deposited in the archives of the lodge, as a memorial that I had therein been made a Mason."

    "How did the Worshipful Master then dispose of you?"

    "He ordered me to be conducted out of the lodge and vested of what I had been divested, and returned for further instructions."

p. 40     "After you returned how were you disposed of."

    Ans. "I was conducted to the northeast corner of the lodge, and there caused to stand upright like a man, my feet forming a square, and received a solemn injunction, ever to walk and act uprightly before God and man, and in addition thereto, received the following charge: [For this charge see page 27.}


    "Why was you divested of all metals when you was made a Mason?"

    Ans. "Because Masonry regards no man on account of his worldly wealth or honors; it is, therefore, the internal and not the external qualifications that recommend a man to Masonry."

    "A second reason?"

    Ans. "There was neither the sound of an axe, hammer, or any other metal tool heard at the building of King Soloman's temple."

    "How could so stupendous a fabric be erected without the sound of axe, hammer, or any other metal tool?"

    Ans. "All the stones were hewed, squared and numbered in the quarries where they were raised, all the timbers felled and prepared in the forests of Lebanon, and carried down to Joppa on floats, and taken from thence up to Jerusalem, and set up with wooden mauls, prepared for that purpose; which, when completed, every part thereof fitted with that exact nicety, that it had more the resemblance of the hand workmanship of the Supreme Architect of the Universe, than that of human hands."

    "Why was you neither naked nor clothed?"

    Ans. "As I was an object of distress at that time, it was to remind me, if ever I saw a friend, more especially a brother, in a like distressed situation, that I should contribute as liberally to his relief as his situation required, and my abilities would admit, without material injury to myself or family."

    "Why were you neither barefoot or shod?"

    Ans. "It was an ancient Israelitish custom, adopted among Masons; and we read, in the book of Ruth, concerning

p. 41 their mode and manner of changing and redeeming, 'and to confirm all things, a brother plucked off his shoe and gave it to his neighbor, and that was testimony in Israel.' This, then, therefore, we do in confirmation of a token and as a pledge of our fidelity; thereby signifying that we will renounce our own wills in all things, and become obedient to the laws of our ancient institutions."

    "Why were you hoodwinked?"

    "That my heart might conceive before my eyes beheld the beauties of Masonry."

    "A second reason?"

    Ans. "As I was in darkness at that time, it was to remind me that I. should keep the whole world so respecting Masonry."

    "Why had you a Cable Tow about your neck?"

    Ans. "In case I had not submitted to the manner and mode of my initiation, that I might have been led out of the lodge without seeing the form and beauties thereof."

    "Why did you give three distinct knocks at the door?"

    Ans. "To alarm the lodge, and let the Worshipful Master, Wardens and brethren know that a poor blind candidate prayed admission."

    "What does those three distinct knocks allude to?"

    Ans. "A certain passage in Scripture, wherein it says, 'Ask and it shall be given, seek and ye shall find, knock and it shall be opened unto you.' "

    "How did you apply this to your then case in Masonry?"

    Ans. "I asked the recommendations of a friend to become a Mason, I sought admission through his recommendations, and knocked, and the door of Masonry opened unto me."

    "Why was you caused to enter on the point of some sharp instrument pressing your naked left breast in the name of the Lord?"

    Ans. "As this was a torture to my flesh, so might the recollection of it ever be to my heart and conscience, if ever I attempted to reveal the secrets of Masonry unlawfully."

    "Why was you conducted to the center of the lodge, and were caused to kneel for the benefit of a prayer?"

p. 42     Ans. "Before entering on this, or any other great and important undertaking, it is highly necessary to implore blessing from Deity."

    "Why was you asked in whom you put your trust?"

    Ans. "Agreeable to the laws of our ancient institution, no atheist could be made a Mason, it was therefore necessary that I should believe in Deity; otherwise no oath or obligation could bind me."

    "Why did the Worshipful Master take you by the right hand and bid you arise, follow your leader and fear no danger?"

    Ans. "As I was in darkness at that time, and could neither foresee nor avoid danger, it was to remind me that I was in the hands of an affectionate friend, in whose fidelity I might with safety confide."

    "Why was you conducted three times regularly round the lodge?"

    Ans. "That the Worshipful Master, Wardens and brethren might see that I was duly and truly prepared."

    "Why did you meet with those several obstructions on the way ?"

    Ans. "This and every lodge is, or ought to be, a true representation of King Solomon's Temple, which, when completed, had guards stationed at the east, west and south gates."

    "Why had they guards stationed at those several gates ?"

    Ans. "To prevent any one from passing or repassing that was not duly qualified."

    "Why did you kneel on your left knee and not on your right, or both?"

    Ans. "The left side has ever been considered the weakest part of the body; it was therefore to remind me that the part I was then taking upon me was the weakest part of Masonry, it being that only of an Entered Apprentice."

    "Why was your right hand placed on the Holy Bible, Square and Compass, and not your left, or both?"

    Ans. "The right hand has ever been considered the seat of fidelity, and our ancient brethren worshiped Deity under the name of Fides, which has sometimes been represented

p. 43 by two right hands joined together; at others, by two human figures holding each other by the right hand; the right hand. therefore, we use in this great and important undertaking to signify, in the strongest manner possible, the sincerity of our intentions in the business we are engaged.

    "Why did the Worshipful Master present you with a lambskin or white apron?"

    Ans. "The lambskin has, in all ages, been deemed an emblem of innocence; he, therefore, who wears the lambskin, as a badge of a Mason, is thereby continually reminded of that purity of life and rectitude of conduct which is so essentially necessary to our gaining admission into the celestial lodge above, where the Supreme Architect of the Universe presides."

    "Why did the Master make a demand of you of something, of a metallic nature?"

    Ans. "As I was in a poor and pennyless situation at that time, it was to remind me if ever I saw a friend, but more especially a brother, in the like poor and pennyless situation, that I should contribute as liberally to his relief as my abilities would admit and his situation required, without injuring myself or family."

    "Why was you conducted to the northeast corner of the lodge, and there caused to stand upright like a man, your feet forming a square, receiving at the same time a solemn charge ever to walk and act upright before God and man?"

    Ans. "The first stone in every Masonic edifice is, or ought to be placed at the northeast corner, that being the place where an Entered Apprentice Mason receives his first instructions to build his future Masonic edifice upon."


    "We have been saying a good deal about a lodge; I want to know what constitutes a lodge?"

    Ans. "A certain number of Free and Accepted Masons duly assembled in a room, or place, with the Holy Bible,

p. 44 Square and Compass, and other Masonic implements with a charter from the Grand Lodge empowering them to work."

    "Where did our ancient Brethren meet before lodges were erected?"

    Ans. "On the highest hills, and in the lowest vales."

    "Why on the highest hills and the lowest vales?"

    Ans. "The better to guard against cowans and enemies, either ascending or descending, that the brethren might have timely notice of their approach to prevent being surprised."

    "What is the form of your lodge?"

    Ans. "An oblong square."

    "How long?"

    Ans. "From east to west."

    "How wide?"

    Ans. "Between north and south."

    "How high?"

    Ans. "From the surface of the earth to the highest heavens."

    "How deep?"

    Ans. "From the surface to the center."

    "What supports your lodge?"

    Ans. "Three large columns or pillars."

    "What are their names?"

    Ans. "Wisdom, Strength and Beauty."

    "Why so?"

    Ans. "It is necessary there should be wisdom to contrive, strength to support, and beauty to adorn all great and important undertakings, but more especially this of ours."

    "Has your lodge any covering?"

    Ans. "It has; a clouded canopy, or a starry decked heaven, where all good Masons hope to arrive."

    "How do they hope to arrive there?"

    Ans. "By the assistance of Jacob's ladder."

    "How many principal rounds has it got?"

    Ans. "Three."

    "What are their names?"

    Ans. "Faith, Hope and Charity."

    "What do they teach?"

p. 45     Ans. "Faith in God, Hope in immortality, and Charity to all mankind."

    "Has your lodge any furniture?"

    Ans. "It has; the Holy Bible, Square, and Compass."

    "To whom do they belong?"

    Ans. "The Bible to God, the Square to the Master, and the Compass to the Craft."

    "How explained?"

    Ans. "The Bible to God, it being the inestimable gift of God to man, for his instruction to guide him through the rugged paths of life; the Square to the Master, it being the proper emblem of his office; the Compass to the Craft, by a due attention to which we are taught to limit our desires, curb our ambition, subdue our irregular appetites, and keep our passions and prejudices in due bonds with all mankind, but more especially with the brethren."

    "Has your lodge any ornaments?"

    Ans. "It has; the mosaic, or chequered pavement, the indented tessels, the beautiful tessellated border which surrounds it, with the blazing star in the center."

    "What do they represent?"

    Ans. "Mosaic or chequered pavement represents this world, which, though chequered over with good and evil, yet brethren may walk together thereon and not stumble; the indented tessel, with the blazing star in the center, the manifold blessings and comforts with which we are surrounded in this life, but more especially those which we hope to enjoy hereafter; the blazing star, that prudence which ought to appear conspicuous in the conduct of every Mason, but more especially commemorative of the star which appeared in the east, to guide the wise men to Bethlehem, to proclaim the birth and the presence of the Son of God."

    "Has your lodge any lights?"

    Ans. "It has three."

    "How are they situated?"

    Ans. "East, west, and south."

    "Has it none in the north?"

    Ans. "It has not."

    "Why so?"

    Ans. "Because this and every other lodge is, or ought to be a true representation of King Solomon's Temple, which

p. 46 was situated north of the ecliptic; the sun and moon therefore darting their rays from the south, no light was to be expected from the north; we, therefore, Masonically, term the north a place of darkness."

    "Has your lodge any jewels?"

    Ans. "It has six; three movable and three immovable."

    "What are the three movable jewels?"

    Ans. "The Square, Level, and Plumb."

    "What do they teach?"

    Ans. "The Square, morality; the Level, equality; and the Plumb, rectitude of life and conduct."

    "What are the three immovable jewels?"

    Ans. "The tough Ashlar, the perfect Ashlar, and the Trestle-board."

    "What are they?"

    Ans. "The rough Ashlar is a stone in its rough and natural state; the perfect Ashlar is also a stone made ready by the working tool of the Fellow Craft to be adjusted in the building: and the Trestle-board is for the master workman to draw his plans and designs upon."

    "What do they represent?"

    Ans. "The rough Ashlar represents man in his rude and imperfect state by nature; the perfect Ashlar also represents man in that state of perfection to which we all hope to arrive by means of a virtuous life and education, our own endeavors, and the blessing of God. In erecting our temporal building we pursue the plans and designs laid down by the master workman on his Trestle-board; but in erecting our spiritual building we pursue the plans and designs laid down by the supreme Geometrician of the universe, in the book of life, which we Masonically term our spiritual Trestle-board."

    "Who did you serve?"

    Ans. "My Master."

    "How long?"

    Ans. "Six days."

    "What did you serve him with?"

    Ans. "Freedom, fervency, and zeal."

    "What do they represent?"

    Ans. "Chalk, charcoal, and earth."

    "Why so?"

p. 47     Ans. "There is nothing freer than chalk, the slightest touch of which leaves a trace behind; nothing more fervent than heated charcoal, it will melt the most obdurate metals; nothing more zealous than the earth to bring forth."

    "How is your lodge situated?"

    Ans. "Due east and west."

    "Why so?"

    Ans. "Because the sun rises in the east and sets in the west."

    "A second reason?"

    Ans. "The gospel was first preached in the east, and is spreading to the west."

    "A third reason?"

    Ans. "The liberal arts and sciences began in the east and are extending to the west."

    "A fourth reason?"

    Ans. "Because all Churches and Chapels are, or ought to be, so situated."

    "Why are all Churches and Chapels so situated?"

    Ans. "Because king Solomon's temple was so situated."

    "Why was king Solomon's temple so situated?"

    Ans. "Because Moses, after conducting the children of Israel through the Red Sea, by Divine command erected a tabernacle to God, and placed it due east and west; which was to commemorate, to the latest posterity, that miraculous east wind that wrought their deliverance; and this was an exact model of king Solomon's temple. Since which time every well regulated and governed lodge is, or ought to be, so situated."

    "To whom did our ancient brethren dedicate their lodges?"

    Ans. "To king Solomon."

    "Why so?"

    Ans. "Because king Solomon was our most ancient Grand Master."

    "To whom do modern Masons dedicate their lodges?"

    Ans. "To St. John the Baptist and St. John the Evangelist."

    "Why so?"

    Ans. "Because they were the two most ancient Christian patrons of Masonry; and since their time, in every well regulated & governed lodge there has been a certain point

p. 48 within a circle, which circle is bounded or, the east and the west by two perpendicular and parallel lines, representing the anniversary of St. John the Baptist, and St. John the Evangelist, who were two perfect parallels, as well in Masonry as Christianity; on the vertex of which rests the book of the Holy Scriptures, supporting Jacob's ladder, which is said to reach the watery clouds; and in passing round this circle we naturally touch on both these perpendicular parallel lines, as well as the book of the Holy Scriptures, and while a Mason keeps himself thus circumscribed he cannot materially err."

    [Thus ends the first degree of Masonry, and the reader who has read and paid attention to it knows more of Masonry than any Entered Apprentice Mason in christendom, and more of this degree than one hundredth part of the Master Masons, or even Royal Arch Masons; for very few ever attempt to learn the lectures, or even the obligations; they merely receive the degrees, and there stop, with the exception of a few who are fascinated with the idea of holding an office; they sometimes endeavor to qualify themselves to discharge the duties which devolve upon them in their respective offices The offices of secretary and treasurer are by some considered the most important in the lodge, particularly where there is much business done.]

p. 49

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    I will now introduce the reader to the second degree of Masonry. It is generally called passing, as will be seen in the lecture. I shall omit the ceremonies of opening and closing, as they are precisely the same as in the first degree, except two knocks are used in this degree, and the door is entered by the benefit of a pass-word. It is Shibboleth. It will be explained in the lecture.

    The candidate, as before, is taken into the preparation room, and prepared in the manner following:

    All his clothing taken off, except his shirt; furnished with a pair of drawers; his right breast bare; his left foot in a slipper, his right bare; a cable-tow twice around his neck; semi-hood-winked; in which situation he is conducted to the door of the lodge, where he gives two knocks, when the Senior Deacon rises and says: "Worshipful, while we are peacably at work on the second degree of Masonry, under the influence of faith, hope, and charity the door of the lodge is alarmed." Master to Senior Deacon, "Enquire the cause of that alarm." [In many lodges they come to the door, knock, are answered by the Senior Deacon, and come in without their being noticed by the Senior Warden or Master.] The Senior Deacon gives two raps on the inside of the door. The candidate gives one without; it is answered by the Senior Deacon with one, when the door is partly opened by the Senior Deacon, who enquires, "Who comes here? Who comes here?

Figure 2 Note: In modern lodges both eyes are covered, and the cable-tow is put around the naked right arm, instead of around the neck. See cut.

p. 50     The Junior Deacon, who is or ought to be the conductor, answers, "A worthy brother who has been regularly initiated as an Entered Apprentice Mason, served a proper time as such, and now wishes for further light in Masonry by being passed to the degree of Fellow Craft."

    Senior Deacon to Junior Deacon. "Is it of his own free will and accord he makes this request?"

    Ans. "It is."

    Senior Deacon to Junior Deacon: "Is he duly and truly prepared?"

    Ans. "He is."

    Senior Deacon to Junior Deacon. "Is he worthy and well qualified?"

    Ans. "He is."

    Senior Deacon to Junior Deacon. "Has he made suitable proficiency in the preceding degree?"

    Ans. "He has."

    [Very few know any more than they did the night they were initiated, have not heard their obligation repeated, nor one section of the lecture, and in fact a very small proportion of Masons ever learn either.]

    Senior Deacon to Junior Deacon. "By what further rights does he expect to obtain this benefit?"

    Ans. "By the benefit of a pass-word."

    Senior Deacon to Junior Deacon. "Has he a pass-word?"

    Ans. "He has not, but I have it for him."

    Senior Deacon to Junior Deacon. "Give it to me."

    The Junior Deacon whispers in the Senior Deacon's ear, "Shibboleth."

    The Senior Deacon says, "The pass is right; since this is the case, you will wait till the Worshipful Master in the east is made acquainted with his request, and his answer returned."

    The Senior Deacon then repairs to the Master and gives two knocks, as at the door, which are answered by two by the Master, when the same questions are asked, and answers returned as at the door, after which the Master says, "Since he comes with all these necessary qualifications, let him enter this Worshipful Lodge in the name of the Lord and take heed on what he enters." As he enters, the angle of the square is pressed hard against his naked right breast,

p. 51 at which time the Senior Deacon says, "Brother, when you entered this lodge the first time, you entered on the point of the compass pressing your naked left breast, which was then explained to you. You now enter it on the angle of the square pressing your naked right breast, which is to teach you to act upon the square with all mankind, but more especially with the brethren." The candidate is then conducted twice regularly round the lodge, and halted at the Junior Warden in the south, where he gives two raps, and is answered by two, when the same questions are asked, and answers returned as at the door; from thence he is conducted to the Senior Warden, where the same questions are asked and answers returned as before; he is then conducted to the Master in the east, where the same questions are asked and answers returned as before; the Master likewise demands of him from whence he came and whither he is traveling.

    He answers, "From the west, and traveling to the east."

    The Master asks, "Why do you leave the west and travel to the east?"

    Ans. "In search of more light."

    The Master then says to the conductor, "Since this is the case, you will please conduct the candidate back to the west from whence he came, and put him in care of the Senior Warden, who will teach him how to approach the east, the place of light, by advancing upon two upright regular steps to the second step [his heel is in the hollow of the right foot on this degree], his feet forming the right angle of an oblong square, and his body erect at the altar before the Worshipful Master, and place him in a proper position to take the solemn oath or obligation of a Fellow Craft Mason."

    The Master then leaves his seat and approaches the kneeling candidate [the candidate kneels on the right knee, the left forming a square, his left arm as far as the elbow in a horizontal position, and the rest of the arm in a vertical position so as to form a square, his arm supported by the square held under his elbow] and says, "Brother, you are now placed in a proper position to take on you the solemn oath or obligation of a Fellow Craft Mason, which I assure you as before is neither to affect your religion nor politics; if you are willing to take it, repeat your name and say after me":

p. 52     "I, A. B., of my own free will and accord, in the presence of Almighty God, and this worshipful lodge of Fellow Craft Masons, dedicated to God, and held forth to the holy order of St. John, do hereby and hereon most solemnly and sincerely promise and swear, in addition to my former obligation, that I will not give the degree of a Fellow Craft Mason to any one of an inferior degree, nor to any other being in the known world, except it be to a true and lawful brother or brethren Fellow Craft Masons, within the body of a just and lawfully constituted lodge of such; and not unto him nor unto them, whom I shall hear so to be, but unto him and them only whom I shall find so to be after strict trial and due examination or lawful information. Furthermore do I promise and swear that I will not wrong this lodge nor a brother of this degree to the value of two cents, knowingly, myself, nor suffer it to be done by others if in my power to prevent it. Furthermore do I promise and swear that I will support the Constitution of the Grand Lodge of the United States, and of the Grand Lodge of this State, under which this lodge is held, and conform to all the by-laws, rules, and regulations of this or any other lodge of which I may at any time hereafter become a member, as far as in my power. Furthermore, do I promise and swear that I will obey all regular signs and summonses given, handed, sent, or thrown to me by the hand of a brother Fellow Craft Mason, or from the body of a just and lawfully constituted lodge of such, provided that it be within the length of my cable-tow, or square and angle of my work. Furthermore, do I promise and swear that I will be aiding and assisting all poor and penniless brethren Fellow Crafts, their widows and orphans, wheresoever disposed round the globe, they applying to me as such, as far as in my power without injuring myself or family. To all which I do most solemnly and sincerely promise and swear without the least hesitation, mental reservation, or self evasion of mind in me whatever; binding myself under no less penalty than to have my left breast torn open and my heart and vitals taken from thence and thrown over my left shoulder and carried into the valley of Jehosaphat, there to become a prey to the wild beasts of the field, and vulture of the air, if ever I should prove willfully guilty of violating any part of this my solemn oath or obligation

p. 53

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of a Fellow Craft Mason; so help me God, and keep me steadfast in the due performance of the same."

    "Detach your hands and kiss the book which is the Holy Bible, twice." The bandage is now (by one of the brethren) dropped over the other eye, and the Master says, "Brother [at the same time laying his hand on the top of the candidate's head], what do you most desire?"

    The candidate answers after his prompter, "More light."

    The Master says, "Brethren, form on the square and assist in bringing our new made brother from darkness to light. 'And God said let there be light, and there was light.' " At this instant all the brethren clap their hands and stamp on the floor as in the preceding degree. The Master says to the candidate, "Brother, what do you discover different from before?" The Master says after a short pause, "You now discover one point of the compass elevated above the square, which donates light in this degree; but as one is yet in obscurity, it is to remind you that you are yet one material point in the dark respecting Masonry." The Master steps off from the candidate three or four steps, and says, Brother, you now discover me as master of this lodge approaching you from the east, under the sign and due-guard of a Fellow Craft Mason; do as I do as near as you can and keep your position." The sign is given by drawing your right hand flat, with the palm of it next to your breast, across your breast from the left to the right side with some quickness, and dropping it down by your side; the due-guard is given by raising the left arm until that part of it between the elbow and shoulder is perfectly horizontal, and raising the rest of the arm in a vertical position, so that that part of the arm below the elbow and that part above it form a square. This is called the the due-guard of a Fellow Craft Mason. The two given together, are called the signs and due-guard of a Fellow Craft Mason, and they are never given separately; they would not be recognized by a Mason if given separately. The Master, by the time he gives his steps, signs, and due-guard, arrives at the candidate

p. 54

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and says, "Brother, I now present you with my right hand, in token of brotherly love and confidence, and with it the pass-grip and word of a Fellow Craft Mason." The pass, or more properly the pass-grip, is given by taking each other by the right hand, as though going to shake hands, and each putting his thumb between the fore and second fingers where they join the hand, and pressing the thumb between the joints. This is the pass-grip of a Fellow Craft Mason, the name of it is Shibboleth. [see pict. 1] Its origin will be explained in the lecture; the pass-grip some give without lettering or syllabling, and others give it in the same way they do the real grip; the real grip of a Fellow Craft Mason is given by putting the thumb on the joint of the second finger where it joins the hand, and crooking your thumb so that each can stick the nail of his thumb into the joint of the other; this is the real grip of a Fellow Craft Mason; the name of it is Jachin, [see pict. 2] it is given in the following manner: If you wish to examine a person after haying taken each other by the grip, ask him, "What is this?" Ans. "A grip."

    "A grip of what?"

    Ans. "The grip of a Fellow Craft Mason."

    "Has it a name?"

    Ans. "It has.

    "Will you give it to me?"

    Ans. "I did not so receive it, neither can I so impart it."

    "What will you do with it?"

    Ans. "I'll letter it or halve it."

    "Halve it and you begin."

    Ans. "No, begin you."

    "You begin."

    Ans. "J A."


p. 55     Ans. "JACHIN."

    "Right, brother, Jachin, I greet you."

    As the signs, due-guards, grips, words, pass-words, and their several names comprise pretty much all the secrets of Masonry, and all the information necessary to pass us as Masons, I intend to appropriate a few passages in the latter part of this work to the exclusive purpose of explaining them; I shall not, therefore, spend much time in examining them as I progress. After the Master gives the candidate the pass-grip and grip, and their names, he says, "Brother, you will rise and salute the Junior and Senior Wardens, as such, and convince them that you have been regularly passed to the degree of a Fellow Craft Mason, and have got the sign and pass-grip, real grip and their names." [I do not here express it as expressed in lodges generally; the Master generally says, "You will arise and salute the Wardens, &c, and convince them, &c., that you have got the sign, pass-grip, and word." It is obviously wrong, because the first thing he gives is the sign, then due-guard, then the pass-grip, real grip, and their names.] While the Wardens are examining the candidate, the Master gets an apron, and returns to the candidate, and says, "Brother, I now have the honor of presenting you with a lambskin or white apron as before, which I hope you will continue to wear with honor to yourself and satisfaction to the brethren; you will please carry it to the Senior Warden in the west, who will teach you how to wear it as a Fellow Craft Mason." The Senior Warden ties on his apron and turns up one corner of the lower end of the apron and tucks it under the apron string. The Senior Deacon then conducts his pupil to the Master, who has by this time resumed his seat in the east, where he has, or ought to have, the floor carpet to assist him in his explanations. Master to the candidate, "Brother, as you are dressed, it is necessary you should have tools to work with. I will therefore present you with the tools of a Fellow Craft Mason. They are the plumb, square, and level. The plumb is an instrument made use of by operative Masons to raise perpendiculars, the square to square their work, and the level to lay horizontals, but we, as Free and Accepted Masons, are taught to use them for a more noble and glorious purpose; the plumb teaches us to walk uprightly in our several stations

p. 56 before God and man, squaring our actions by the square of virtue, and remembering that we are traveling on the level of time to that undiscovered country from whose bourne no traveler has returned. I further present you with three precious jewels: their names are Faith, Hope, and Charity; they teach us to have faith in God, hope in immortality, and charity to all mankind." The Master to the Senior Deacon, "You will now conduct the candidate out of the lodge and invest him of what he has been divested." After he is clothed and the necessary arrangements made for his reception, such as placing the columns and floor carpet, if they have any, and the candidate is reconducted back to the lodge; as he enters the door the Senior Deacon observes, "We are now about to return to the middle chamber of King Solomon's temple." When within the door the Senior Deacon proceeds, "Brother, we have worked in speculative Masonry, but our forefathers wrought both in speculative and operative Masonry; they worked at the building of King Solomon's temple, and many other Masonic edifices; they wrought six days; they did not work on the seventh, because in six days God created the heavens and earth and rested on the seventh day; the seventh, therefore, our ancient brethren consecrated as a day of rest, thereby enjoying more frequent opportunities to contemplate the glorious works of creation and to adore their great Creator." Moving a step or two, the Senior Deacon proceeds, "Brother, the first thing that attracts our attention are two large columns, or pillars, one on the left hand and the other on the right; the name of the one on the left hand is Boaz, and denotes strength; the name of the one on the right hand is Jachin, and denotes establishment; they collectively allude to a passage in Scripture wherein God has declared in his word, 'In strength shall this House be established.' "

    These columns are eighteen cubits high, twelve in circumference and four in diameter; they are adorned with two large Chapiters, one on each, and these Chapiters are ornamented with net-work, lily-work, and pomegranates; they denote unity, peace, and plenty. The net-work, from its connection, denotes union, the lily, from its whiteness, purity and peace, and the pomegranate, from the exuberance of its seed, denotes plenty. They also have two large globes or

p. 57 balls, one on each; these globes or balls contain on their convex surface all the maps and charts of the celestial and terrestrial bodies; they are said to be thus extensive to denote the universality of Masonry, and that a Mason's charity ought to be equally extensive. Their composition is molten, or cast brass; they were cast on the river Jordan, in the clay ground, between Succoth and Zaradatha, where King Solomon ordered these and all other holy vessels to be cast; they were cast hollow, and were four inches, or a hand-breadth, thick; they were cast hollow better to withstand inundations and conflagrations, were the archives of Masonry, and contained the constitution, rolls, and records." The Senior Deacon having explained the columns, he passes between them, advancing a step or two, observing as he advances, "Brother, we will pursue our travels; the next that we come to is a long, winding staircase, with three, five, seven steps, or more." The first three allude to the three principal supports in Masonry, viz.: wisdom, strength, and beauty; the five steps allude to the five orders in architecture, and the five human senses; the five orders in architecture are the Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, and Composite; the five human senses are hearing, seeing, feeling, smelling, and tasting, the first three of which have ever been highly essential among Masons— hearing, to hear the word; seeing, to see the sign; feeling, to feel the grip whereby one Mason may know another in the dark as well as in the light. The seven steps allude to the seven sabbatical years, seven years of famine, seven years in building the temple, seven golden candlesticks, seven wonders of the world, seven planets, but more especially the seven liberal arts and sciences, which are grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy; for this and many other reasons the number seven has ever been held in high estimation among Masons. Advancing a few steps, the Senior Deacon proceeds, "Brother, the next thing we come to is the outer door of the middle chamber of King Solomon's temple, which is partly open, but closely tyled by the Junior Warden." [It is the Junior Warden in the south, who represents the Tyler at the outer door of the middle chamber of King Solomon's temple], who on the approach of the Senior Deacon and candidate enquires, "Who comes here? Who comes here?"

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